Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit
Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit - Information
The ELISA Genie CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit can assay for CD31 / PECAM-1 in the following samples: serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.How our CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kits Work?
The ELISA Genie (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) assay kits are designed for the quantitative measurement of analytes in a wide variety of samples. As today's scientists demand high quality consistent data for high impact journals, ELISA Genie have developed our range of sensitive, fast and reliable ELISA kit assays to meet and exceed those demands. Our assay kits use a quantitative sandwich ELISA technique and each kit comes with highly specific antibodies pre-coated onto a 96-well microtiter plate.
At ELISA Genie we understand the need for speed! Therefore, we have developed an ultra-fast protocol meaning you achieve your results rapidly. So, once you have prepared and plated your samples, blanks and standards, you simply incubate with a highly specific biotin-conjugated primary antibody and Avidin conjugated to Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) and incubate for the appropriate length of time. After washing the plate according to the protocol and addition of the TMB (3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine) solution, the appearance of a blue colour should be detected due to an enzymatic reaction catalysed by HRP. Next step is the addition of the Stop Solution which terminates the HRP reaction and the blue colour turns yellow with the signal intensity measured on a plate reader at 450nm. The amount of bound CD31 / PECAM-1 is proportional to the signal generated by the reaction meaning the kit assay gives you a quantitative measurement of the analyte in your samples.
Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit - Data
Induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-690 plays a critical role in TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting 'detachment' signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cell's active repulsion from the phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the apoptotic cell to the phagocyte, thus triggering the process of engulfment). Isoform Delta15 is unable to protect against apoptosis. Modulates BDKRB2 activation. Regulates bradykinin- and hyperosmotic shock-induced ERK1/2 activation in human umbilical cord vein cells (HUVEC).
|Post-Translational Modification|| |
Phosphorylated on Ser and Tyr residues after cellular activation. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by FER and FES in response to FCER1 activation. In endothelial cells Fyn mediates mechanical-force (stretch or pull) induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Palmitoylation by ZDHHC21 is necessary for cell surface expression in endothelial cells and enrichment in membrane rafts.
CD31/PECAM-1/(Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1)
|Detection method|| |
Sandwich ELISA Double Antibody
This immunoassay kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of PECAM-1 concentrations in serum plasma and other biological fluids.
4'C for 6 months
Matrices listed below were spiked with certain level of PECAM-1 and the recovery rates were calculated by comparing the measured value to the expected amount of PECAM-1 in samples.
The linearity of the kit was assayed by testing samples spiked with appropriate concentration of PECAM-1 and their serial dilutions. The results were demonstrated by the percentage of calculated concentration to the expected.
For Research Use Only
Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit Protocol
The below protocol is a sample protocol for Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit using a biotinylated detection antibody and streptavidin-HRP. Sandwich ELISAs allow for the detection and quantification of an analyte in a sample by using known analyte concentrations as standards and plotting absorbance of known concentrations vs known standard concentrations. This allows the researcher to calculate the amount of Human CD31 / PECAM-1 present in their sample.
Before adding to wells, equilibrate the SABC working solution and TMB substrate for at least 30 min at 37 Â°C. When diluting samples and reagents, they must be mixed completely and evenly. It is recommended to plot a standard curve for each test.
|1.||Set standard, test sample and control (zero) wells on the pre-coated plate respectively, and then, record their positions. It is recommended to measure each standard and sample in duplicate. Wash plate 2 times before adding standard, sample and control (zero) wells!|
|2.||Aliquot 0.1ml standard solutions into the standard wells.|
|3.||Add 0.1 ml of Sample / Standard dilution buffer into the control (zero) well.|
|4.||Add 0.1 ml of properly diluted sample ( Human serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.) into test sample wells.|
|5.||Seal the plate with a cover and incubate at 37 Â°C for 90 min.|
|6.||Remove the cover and discard the plate content, clap the plate on the absorbent filter papers or other absorbent material. Do NOT let the wells completely dry at any time. Wash plate X2.|
|7.||Add 0.1 ml of Biotin- detection antibody working solution into the above wells (standard, test sample & zero wells). Add the solution at the bottom of each well without touching the side wall.|
|8.||Seal the plate with a cover and incubate at 37Â°C for 60 min.|
|9.||Remove the cover, and wash plate 3 times with Wash buffer. Let wash buffer rest in wells for 1 min between each wash.|
|10.||Add 0.1 ml of SABC working solution into each well, cover the plate and incubate at 37Â°C for 30 min.|
|11.||Remove the cover and wash plate 5 times with Wash buffer, and each time let the wash buffer stay in the wells for 1-2 min.|
|12.||Add 90 Âµl of TMB substrate into each well, cover the plate and incubate at 37Â°C in dark within 10-20 min. (Note: This incubation time is for reference use only, the optimal time should be determined by end user.) And the shades of blue can be seen in the first 3-4 wells (with most concentrated standard solutions), the other wells show no obvious color.|
|13.||Add 50 Âµl of Stop solution into each well and mix thoroughly. The color changes into yellow immediately.|
|14.||Read the O.D. absorbance at 450 nm in a microplate reader immediately after adding the stop solution.|
Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit components
|ELISA Microplate(Dismountable)||8×12 strips||4°C for 6 months|
|Sample/Standard Dilution Buffer||20ml||4°C|
|Biotin-labeled Antibody(Concentrated)||120ul||4°C (Protect from light)|
|Antibody Dilution Buffer||10ml||4°C|
|HRP-Streptavidin Conjugate(SABC)||120ul||4°C (Protect from light)|
|SABC Dilution Buffer||10ml||4°C|
|TMB Substrate||10ml||4°C (Protect from light)|
Other materials and equipment required:The ELISA Genie Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit will require other equipment and materials to carry out the assay. Please see list below for further details.
- Microplate reader with 450 nm wavelength filter
- Multichannel Pipette, Pipette, microcentrifuge tubes and disposable pipette tips
- Deionized or distilled water
- Absorbent paper
- Buffer resevoir
When carrying out an ELISA assay it is important to prepare your samples in order to achieve the best possible results. Below we have a list of procedures for the preparation of samples for different sample types.
If using serum separator tubes, allow samples to clot for 30 minutes at room temperature. Centrifuge for 10 minutes at 1,000x g. Collect the serum fraction and assay promptly or aliquot and store the samples at -80°C. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles.
If serum separator tubes are not being used, allow samples to clot overnight at 2-8°C. Centrifuge for 10 minutes at 1,000x g. Remove serum and assay promptly or aliquot and store the samples at -80°C. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles.
Collect plasma using EDTA or heparin as an anticoagulant. Centrifuge samples at 4°C for 15 mins at 1000 × g within 30 mins of collection. Collect the plasma fraction and assay promptly or aliquot and store the samples at -80°C. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Note: Over haemolysed samples are not suitable for use with this kit.
Urine & Cerebrospinal Fluid
Collect the urine (mid-stream) in a sterile container, centrifuge for 20 mins at 2000-3000 rpm. Remove supernatant and assay immediately. If any precipitation is detected, repeat the centrifugation step. A similar protocol can be used for cerebrospinal fluid.
Cell culture supernatant
Collect the cell culture media by pipette, followed by centrifugation at 4°C for 20 mins at 1500 rpm. Collect the clear supernatant and assay immediately.
Solubilize cells in lysis buffer and allow to sit on ice for 30 minutes. Centrifuge tubes at 14,000 x g for 5 minutes to remove insoluble material. Aliquot the supernatant into a new tube and discard the remaining whole cell extract. Quantify total protein concentration using a total protein assay. Assay immediately or aliquot and store at ≤ -20 °C.
The preparation of tissue homogenates will vary depending upon tissue type. Rinse tissue with 1X PBS to remove excess blood & homogenize in 20ml of 1X PBS (including protease inhibitors) and store overnight at ≤ -20°C. Two freeze-thaw cycles are required to break the cell membranes. To further disrupt the cell membranes you can sonicate the samples. Centrifuge homogenates for 5 mins at 5000xg. Remove the supernatant and assay immediately or aliquot and store at -20°C or -80°C.
Rinse tissue with PBS, cut into 1-2 mm pieces, and homogenize with a tissue homogenizer in PBS. Add an equal volume of RIPA buffer containing protease inhibitors and lyse tissues at room temperature for 30 minutes with gentle agitation. Centrifuge to remove debris. Quantify total protein concentration using a total protein assay. Assay immediately or aliquot and store at ≤ -20 °C.
Collect milk samples and centrifuge at 10,000 x g for 60 min at 4°C. Aliquot the supernatant and assay. For long term use, store samples at -80°C. Minimize freeze/thaw cycles.
Human CD31 / PECAM-1 ELISA Kit Protein Information
|UniProt Protein Function:||PECAM-1: a cell adhesion molecule expressed on platelets and at endothelial cell intercellular junctions. Plays a role in modulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion, transendothelial migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell migration, negative regulation of immune cell signaling, autoimmunity, macrophage phagocytosis, IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and thrombosis. Undergoes alternative splicing, generating multiple isoforms in vascular beds of various tissues.|
|UniProt Protein Details:|
Protein type:Cell adhesion; Membrane protein, integral
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 17q23.3
Cellular Component: cell junction; extracellular space; integral to membrane; lipid raft; plasma membrane; platelet alpha granule membrane
Molecular Function:protein binding
Biological Process: blood coagulation; cell adhesion; cell recognition; diapedesis; extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis; leukocyte migration; phagocytosis; platelet activation; platelet degranulation; signal transduction
|NCBI Summary:||The protein encoded by this gene is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]|
|NCBI GenInfo Identifier:||129747|
|NCBI Gene ID:||5175|
|UniProt Secondary Accession:||P16284,Q6LDA9, Q8TBH1, Q96RF5, Q96RF6, Q9NP65, Q9NPB7 Q9NPG9, Q9NQS9, Q9NQT0, A8K3S7, D3DU31,|
|UniProt Related Accession:||P16284|
|Molecular Weight:||81,378 Da|
|NCBI Full Name:||Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule|
|NCBI Synonym Full Names:||platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1|
|NCBI Official Symbol:||PECAM1|
|NCBI Official Synonym Symbols:||CD31; PECA1; GPIIA'; PECAM-1; endoCAM; CD31/EndoCAM|
|NCBI Protein Information:||platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule|
|UniProt Protein Name:||Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule|
|UniProt Synonym Protein Names:||EndoCAM; GPIIA'; PECA1; CD_antigen: CD31|
|Protein Family:||Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule|
|UniProt Gene Name:||PECAM1|
|UniProt Entry Name:||PECA1_HUMAN|