T-cell metabolism –The Dangers of Anabolism.

By Ben Molloy PhD Metabolism Metabolism describes the chemical processes that maintain homeostasis in the cells of living organisms. Commonly it is thought of as “the breakdown” of nutrients to provide “energy”, but this underestimates the inherent complexity between different cell populations and the demands placed on them (Yang et al., 2015). T-cells and Adaptive […]

Existing treatments for atherosclerosis

Statins- existing treatments for atherosclerosis Statins or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are lipid lowering drugs and used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, which is a main contributor to cardiovascular disease and thus morbidity and mortality rates. Statins are one of the most widely used exsisting treatments for atherosclerosis. Many clinical trials such as the […]

Lipid accumulation and oxidation

An increasing amount of research has supported that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles trapped in the subendothelial space play a vital role in the initiation of fatty streaks and progression of fibrotic plaque in atherosclerosis (Furnkranz et al., 2005). Various inflammatory diseases such as cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and in this case atherosclerosis, feature lipid oxidation […]

Hemodynamic forces and artery architecture

 Hemodynamic forces and artery architecture The endothelium monolayer being the dividing factor between the vascular wall and blood flow is subjected to fluid forces of greater magnitude than any other tissue (Davies, 1986). The magnitude can be estimated by Poiseuille’s law, which states “that shear stress is proportional to blood flow viscosity and inversely proportional […]

BNPs, Cardiac inflammation and Fibrosis

By Nadezhda Glezeva PhD The early physiological processes predisposing the healthy heart to undergo changes towards an unstable, diseased state and eventually cardiac insufficiency are still under investigation. In the case of chronic HF, the disease continuum is commonly initiated following a chronic exposure of the CV system to high blood pressure. Hypertension and High […]

Clinical significance and therapeutic potential of BNP

By Nadezhda Glezeva PhD Clinical significance of BNP Synthesis, processing and release of BNP (Brain natriuretic peptide) occur at low levels under normal physiological conditions when the hormone is released from the heart into the circulation to regulate fluid balance. However, under pathophysiological conditions as in the event of increased myocyte tension due to elevated […]

Natriuretic peptides & B-type Natriuretic Peptides

By Nadezhda Glezeva PhD General characteristics of the natriuretic peptide family The natriuretic peptide (NP) family is a family of four structurally similar yet genetically distinct cardiac- and vascular-derived factors with diverse functions in the cardiovascular, renal and endocrine systems. Atrial NP (ANP) is the oldest and most studied member of the family since its […]

Monocytes in Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease

By Nadezhda Glezeva PhD Monocytes Monocytes are components of the innate immune system with primary functions in immune defense, inflammation and tissue remodelling. As regulators of immune responses, monocytes protect the host against foreign pathogens in a non-antigen-specific manner either by direct pathogen elimination (depending on specific interactions between pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll-like […]

Inflammation in Cardiac Remodelling

By Nadezhda Glezeva PhD Inflammation in Cardiac Remodelling Initial evidence showing a role of inflammation in cardiac remodelling and heart disease came from experimental and clinical observations of immune-inflammatory activation in patients with chronic HF [39]. Since then, multiple studies have shown high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin […]