A Quick Guide to Myelin

The myelin sheath is an insulating layer around nerve cells. It is made up of a substance called myelin, which is produced by special cells called oligodendrocytes. Myelin protects the nerve cells and to keep them maintain their function. Myelin is important for the proper function of the nervous system. It helps to speed up nerve impulses and prevents them from becoming mixed up. Without myelin, nerve impulses would move slowly and would be easily confused. Myelin is also important for the repair of damaged nerves. When a nerve is damaged, the myelin sheath around it is also damaged. The oligodendrocytes that produce myelin can also repair the myelin sheath. This process is called myelination.

What is Myelin?

Myelin is a white, fatty substance that is made up of lipids and proteins. It is produced by oligodendrocytes, which are cells that are found in the central nervous system. The myelin sheath is composed of myelin, which is a type of lipid. Myelin is made up of about 70% lipids and 30% proteins. It is found in the white matter of the brain and the spinal cord.

Diagram of a neuron

The role of axons

The role of axons in the neuron is to enable nerve impulses to pass from one neuron to another. This enables messages to be sent to and from the CNS. The myelin sheath surrounds the axons. Axons link the dendrites on one end of the neuron to the axon terminal on the opposite end of the neuron.

The role of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

CNS Myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, which are cells that are found in the central nervous system. Meanwhile, Schwann cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system.

Nodes of Ranvier

Nodes of ranvier are spaces in between the myelin sheath. It helps to send a nerve impulse from one neuron to another. They help to speed up nerve impulses by providing a pathway for electrical signals to travel along. Without nodes of ranvier, nerve impulses would move slowly and would be easily confused. Nodes of ranvier are also important for the repair of damaged nerves. When a nerve is damaged, the nodes of ranvier around it are also damaged. The process by which the nodes of ranvier accelerates the nerve signals is achieved through a mechanism known as saltatory conduction. The nodes of ranvier consist of sodium channels which allow for the rapid influx of sodium ions. This creates an electrical potential difference which causes the nerve signal to 'jump' from nodes to nodes, thereby increasing the speed of conduction. Without myelin, saltatory conduction would not be possible and impulses would be conducted slower through the neuron. Myelin provides insulation to the axon and nodes of Ranvier serve as 'gaps' in between the myelin sheath which help to increase the speed of saltatory conduction.

Myelin damage

Myelin damage can occur for a variety of reasons. One reason is that the myelin sheath can be damaged by the immune system. This can happen in people with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In multiple sclerosis, the immune system damages myelin. This disrupts nerve impulses traveling between neurons. Damage to the myelin sheath can also occur due to injury or a disease process. When the myelin sheath is disrupted, it can no longer do its job properly. This can result in inaccurate nerve function. A variety of neurological disorders can occur as a result of a disrupted Myelin sheath.

There are several ways to treat myelin damage. One way is to use drugs that suppress the immune system. This can help stop disease progression. Another way is to use drugs that encourages myelin sheath repair to improve nerve function. Myelin damage is a serious condition that can cause many problems. However, there are treatments available that can help to improve the situation.

Myelin damage and Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis can be a very debilitating condition, and there is currently no cure. However, there are ways to manage the symptoms and to deaccelerate the disease. Some symptoms of Multiple Sclerosios include:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Problems with balance and coordination
  • Fatigue
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Problems with vision

Myelin restoration

Myelin restoration is an essential process in the repair and maintenance of the nervous system. Without myelin, the electrical impulses that travel along the nerves would be unable to function properly, and the nerves would be damaged. Myelin is produced by oligodendrocyte precursor cells. These are specialised cells that are found in the nervous system. Oligodendrocytes are the cells responsible for regenerating myelin. Oligodendrocytes originate from oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which facilitates myelin repair. When myelin is damaged, these cells are able to repair and regenerate it. There are a number of different ways in which myelin can be damaged. One of the most common is through autoimmune disease. In autoimmune disease, the body's immune system attacks myelin, causing inflammation and damage. Other causes of myelin damage include injury, infection, and certain toxins. Myelin is produced by oligodendrocyte cells. These are a type of glial cell. Glial cells are supporting cells in the nervous system that help to protect and insulate nerve cells. Oligodendrocyte cells wrap themselves around nerve cells and produce myelin.

Related Products

Product Name Sensitivity Range

Sensitivity: 0.113ng/mL

Range: 0.312-20ng/mL

Sensitivity: 0.094ng/ml

Range: 0.156-10ng/ml


Range: 0.156-10ng/mL


Range: 0.156-10 ng/mL

4th Aug 2022 Laura Leonard MSc

Recent Posts