Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a cytokine that is mainly produced by the liver. It plays an important role in promoting cell growth, survival, and migration. HGF has been shown to be beneficial in a number of diseases, including cancer, liver disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. In this blog post, we will discuss the role of HGF in health and disease, and how it may be used as a therapy for various conditions.

What is Hepatocyte Growth Factor(HGF)?

HGF is a pleiotrophic cytokine that regulates cell growth, motility, and morphogenesis. The majority of HGF is produced by the liver, but it is also expressed in other organs, such as the kidney, pancreas, and intestine. HGF binds to its cognate receptor, c-Met, which is present on the surface of many types of cells. However, it has no measurable protease activity. Binding of HGF to c-Met leads to activation of multiple signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation.

HGF is produced as a preproprotein of 728 amino acids, with a signal sequence and both α- and β-chains. A single-chain HGF is generated between Arg494 and Val495 during cleavage of a signal peptide of the first 31 amino acids, giving rise to a two-chain mature HGF. Single-chain HGF is biologically inactive, and processing into the two-chain form is coupled to its activation.

Hepatocyte Growth Factor(HGF) related products

Function of Hepatocyte Growth Factor

  • Hepatocyte growth factor is a multi-functional cytokine that is produced by mesenchymal cells and has effects on epithelial-derived cells. It has a crucial function in the development of angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and tissue regeneration via its ability to stimulate mitosis, cell motility, and matrix invasion.
  • In mature tissues, HGF plays roles in tissue protection and regeneration, including in the liver and kidney. HGF is involved in invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance.
  • It is a highly active cytokine that is found in the blood vessel wall, many tissues, and organs. Because it encourages angiogenesis, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial apoptosis, and cardiac function improvement, the increase of HGF in the cardiovascular system is a defensive mechanism that aids in anti-injury repair.
  • HGF may increase the formation of inositol phosphate in cells, move extracellular Ca2+ into cells, and stimulate liver cells. Arachidonic acid is released when the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phospholipase D are activated. These series of actions promote the synthesis of DNA and protein in hepatocytes and produce cell division.

Clinical significance of Hepatocyte Growth Factor

  • HGF has clinical significance in a number of diseases. In cancer, HGF has been shown to promote tumor growth and metastasis. In liver disease, HGF can protect hepatocytes from damage and improve liver function. In pulmonary fibrosis, HGF has been shown to reduce lung inflammation and fibrosis. HGF may also be beneficial in other diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disease.
  • HGF is a key factor in the development and migration of cardiac myocytes (cells responsible for pumping blood) by regulating T-cell chemotaxis into heart tissue. CCR4, c-Met, and CXCR3 are all upregulated in T cells following the binding of HGF by c-Met. This activates CXCR3 and CCR4, which enables them to migrate into heart tissue. HGF also promotes angiogenesis in ischemia injury. HGF may also be used as a prognostic indicator for chronic Chikungunya virus and arthralgia. High HGF levels correlate with high rates of recovery.
  • Macromastia is a condition in which the breasts become so large that they create an unnatural shape. Excessive local expression of HGF has been connected to macromastia. The HGF is essential for normal mammary gland development. It is also involved in the early stages of breast milk synthesis and deficiency.
  • The HGF-1 treatment can effectively aid in the cure of cirrhosis, but further research is needed to determine its mechanism and clinical application.
  • The expression of HGF in AMI is similar to that seen with IL-1β and TNF-α increases, which are gradually increased, suggesting that inflammatory chemicals promote the production of HGF after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
  • HGF is being investigated as a therapy for various conditions. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HGF in cancer, liver disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and other diseases. If clinical trials are successful, HGF could become a valuable treatment for many different conditions.
23rd Mar 2022 Meghana Menon, Msc

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