CD Markers List
Ultimate Guide: CD Markers List
Cluster of differentiation markers (CD markers) are a type of antigen which can be used to identify and isolate cells that belong to a particular lineage or subset of cells. These markers are found on the surface of cells and can be used to determine the stage of development, maturity, or activation of a cell.
CD markers are expressed on the surface of a wide variety of cells, including lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets. There are many different CD markers, and each marker is specific to a certain cell type or lineage.
CD markers are often used in cancer research to help identify tumor cells and track their progression. CD markers play an important role in distinguishing different types of cancer cells from one another. Additionally, CD markers can be used to monitor the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on tumor cells. Furthermore, CD markers can be helpful in diagnosing certain types of cancer. For example, tests that use CD marker proteins can be used to determine whether a person has leukemia or lymphoma. Finally, CD markers can also be targeted therapeutically to kill specific types of cancer cells.
At Assay Genie we have compiled a comprehensive list of CD markers, outlining the function, expression and binding, role in disease and therapeutic potential of each marker.
List of CD Markers
CD2 is a small glycoprotein also known as T-cell co-receptor. CD2 has an important role in the antigen receptor signal transduction along with other surface molecules of the Immunoglobulin superfamily such as MHC. CD2 is expressed on all T cells and is involved in their activation, proliferation and apoptosis. CD2 is an important molecule in the activation process of T cells and NK cells, and coordinates with other proteins like Lyn and Lck during this process. CD2 is essential for the activation and maturation of cytotoxic T cells, and also acts as a co-receptor for MHC class I molecules in order to generate an effective immune response. The CD2 receptor on T cells is composed of an amino-terminal portion, which binds to the TCR complex, and a carboxy-terminal portion with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), which is important for initiating signal transduction in response to antigen receptor ligation.
CD2 Expression / Binding
CD2 is highly expressed in T lymphocytes and to a lesser extent on other immune cells such as B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils. It is thought that CD2 acts as a signaling molecule to help these immune cells interact with T cells. CD2 is present in the T cell receptor (TCR) complex along with other proteins like CD3, CD4 and CD8. CD2 has a unique role in cross-linking T cell receptors (TCR) and CD28. The binding of CD2 to the Ig domain on the C' beta segment of the TCR complex allows multiple lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA1 or ICAM1) molecules to bind to CD2. This in turn brings the TCR complex and CD28 into close contact resulting in a series of phosphorylation events that set off the immune cascade. CD2 also interacts with protein kinases such as ZAP-70, Lck, Fyn to ensure efficient signal transduction. The interaction of these proteins with CD2 is important for the efficient formation of lymphocyte-associated antigen 6 (LAG-6).
Role of CD2 in Disease
CD2 has been identified as a possible tumor or cancer stem cell antigen. CD2 expression was found to be lost at both mRNA and protein levels in cancer cells. CD2 can be used as a diagnostic marker for certain cancers such as Hodgkins disease, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CD2 has also been used as a biomarker for autoimmune activation of T cells primarily in animal models of experimental arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD2
Siplizumab is an anti CD2 monoclonal antibody, directed against the CD2 molecule on T cells. Recent studies suggest that sipilizumab may be effective as a first-line therapy for T-cell lymphoma. Clinical trials using antibodies against CD2 in patients with T-cell lymphomas have shown promising results, both as monotherapy and in combination with conventional treatments. Anti-CD2 therapy using monoclonal antibodies has the potential to be used as a treatment for autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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CD3d is a 34 kDa type I transmembrane protein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily containing four extracellular immunoglobulin domains, a single transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail. CD3d forms a homodimer when bound to its ligand epsilon on the T cell receptor complex. CD3d is important in determining immunological self/non-self recognition and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of the immune system. CD3d is also known as T-cell receptor due to its function in recognizing antigen fragments. CD3d is a cell surface marker used in immunohistochemistry to identify T cells that mediate antigen-specific responses. CD3d serves as a marker for malignant T cell differentiation, and also acts as a marker for final identification of maturing T lymphocytes within tissues.
CD3d Expression / Binding
CD3d is expressed on ~80-90% of circulating T cells. CD3d is an excellent marker for helper/inducer T cells, which are involved in the activation of cytotoxic T cells and B cells. CD3d is also expressed on NK cells and some monocytes. CD3d binds to the epsilon domain of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, this interaction is responsible for activating regulatory T cells, inducing their proliferation and secreting IL2 (interleukin 2). CD3d has a carbohydrate structure called an alpha epitope that binds to MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells.
Role of CD3d in Disease
CD3d marker is used in diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, because the marker can be detected in 80-90% of cases. CD3d is also expressed by T cells involved in transplant rejection (Graft vs host disease). CD3d expression on donor tissue causes transplant rejection by the recipient. CD3d plays a role in autoimmune diseases such as lupus, but the exact mechanism is still unknown, it is hypothesised that CD3d might be involved in regulation of immune response.
Therapeutic Potential of CD3d
CD3d antibodies are emerging as an innovative therapeutic approach for treating autoimmune diseases, but their clinical use is limited by the short plasma half-life of the murine antibody, therefore studies are being performed to test the safety and efficacy of humanized CD3d monoclonal antibodies. Teplizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds CD3d on T cells. Teplizumab is currently being developed as a treatment for type 1 diabetes, and is the first anti-CD3d monoclonal antibody to be tested in clinical trials as a therapeutic agent with an acceptable safety profile.
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CD4, also known as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed on the surface of activated T cells. The CD4 receptor is an essential component of the cell-mediated immune response. CD4 is also involved in antigen presentation to T cells, B cell activation, and dendritic cell maturation. CD4 plays an important role in the central, T cell-independent activation pathway of B cells.
CD4 Expression / Binding
CD4 is expressed on T helper cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. CD4 binds to HIV-1 gp120 and CD154. CD4+ T cells are also involved in providing help to IgA class switching by activating dendritic cells through trans interactions with B7 molecules. The antigenic determinant of CD4 that is bound to gp120 on the surface of an infected cell is recognized by a specific region on the delta heavy chain of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. CD4 binds to gp120 and transduces signals, which causes a downstream cascade that ultimately leads to T-cell activation.
Role of CD4 in Disease
The expression of CD4 by T helper cells makes them vulnerable to infection by HIV. The absence or dysfunctioning of CD4 causes severe immunodeficiency (known as "AIDS"). CD4 is expressed on mature T helper cells, and can be used to identify cell proliferation in neoplastic cells, in order to determine the tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) population within a tumor. Elevated levels of CD4 on tumor cells is correlated with decreased survival times in colorectal and stomach cancer patients.
Therapeutic Potential of CD4
CD4 is a cell surface receptor for HIV-1 gp120 that mediates entry of the virus into susceptible cells. Inhibition of CD4 activity prevents infection of susceptible target cells, various efforts are underway to develop drugs that inhibit the CD4 receptor, thereby preventing infection of cells by HIV. Ibalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD4, has been approved by the US FDA since 2015 as an orphan drug for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Zanolimumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits CD4 and is used to treat CD4-dependent tumors such as leukemias and lymphomas.
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CD10, also known as Neprilysin, is a single pass type II transmembrane, 100 kD cell surface glycoprotein belonging to the peptidase family. CD10 is a membrane metalloprotease that is released into the extracellular domain after it has been transported from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface. Regulated expression of CD10 is necessary for angiogenesis.
CD10 Expression / Binding
CD10 is expressed specifically in early lymphoid progenitor stages showing immature phenotype that suggests its role in lymphoid cell development and differentiation, and is present in several tissues especially in kidneys. It is present in various malignancies, and is known to play a significant role in cancer development and progression.
Role of CD10 in Disease
CD10 expression is a biomarker for cancer response and prognosis. CD10-positive stromal cells are present at the invasive front of cancer cells, implying a link between breast cancer cells and CD10-positive stromal cells. The presence of CD10 on stromal cells is linked to nodal metastasis, tumor grade, tumor size, lymph node involvement, and poor prognosis. CD10 has been linked to oxidative damage, which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and levels of neprilysin activity decline as people age. CD10 marker can be used for prognosis and future treatment plans in Alzheimer’s disease.
Therapeutic Potential of CD10
Analgesic agents that prevent neprilysin from inhibiting signaling peptides have been developed. Sacubitril, a prodrug, is used for those with heart failure. Studies have shown that CD10 mAB have an inhibitory effect on cell differentiation and proliferation. JMAM-1 mAb, which is a CD10 monoclonal antibody, has been shown to bind with CD10 antigen, suggesting it may be used for the diagnosis of mesothelioma as well as the prognosis of other types of cancer.
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CD19 is a protein marker found on B-cells. CD19 is involved with the development of B-cells into plasma cells, which produce antibodies. Cell differentiative processes including B-1, germinal center, and marginal area B cell formation were shown to require CD19. CD19 has been used as a marker for B-cells, so CD19 staining can be used to show how well chemotherapy has worked in certain types of lymphoma such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
CD19 Expression / Binding
CD19 acts as a co-receptor for CD21, CD81, CD225. CD19 binds CD81 to CD19 and CD21, which is involved in T cell costimulation by antigen presenting cells. The CD81 ectodomain binds CD19 and promotes the export of this protein to the cell surface by interacting with its extracellular domain and this interaction is also known to be linked with B cell activation state.
Role of CD19 in Disease
CD19 abnormalities have been linked to autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. If mutations are present in CD21 and CD81 it can also induce primary immunodeficiency through their participation in the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex formation and can lead to hypogammaglobulinaemia and poor immunological memory. CD19-related immunodeficiency can cause hyporesponsiveness to transmembrane signals, a weak T cell-dependent immunological response, and that in turn leads to an overall impaired humoral immune response.
Therapeutic Potential of CD19
CD19 has been used as a marker for B-cells in certain types of lymphoma such as diffuse large B cell lymphomas. CD19 is not very sensitive, however, so it must be combined with CD20 or CD79a immunostaining if DLBCL is suspected. A positive CD19 result indicates that the patient will benefit from B-cell depleting therapy using drugs like rituximab. CD19-directed CAR T cells have shown remarkable promise for relapsed cases of several cancer types.
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CD20 is a cell surface antigen present on the surface lymphocytes. CD20 is a small (10-12KD) glycoprotein with an α-bundle structure. CD20 plays an important role in B cell function and consequently in the specific defence mechanisms against infections. CD20 protects lymphocytes from the lysis mediated by natural killer cells. CD20 also plays a role in antigen presentation of antigens of B cell origin to T helper cells, this mechanism is essential for the normal life cycle of B-cells. CD20 facilitates the migration of activated B-cells into areas of inflammation under the influence of chemokines. CD20 is also involved in antigen presentation and development of memory B cells. CD20 can be detected in malignant disorders and serves as a tumor marker.
CD20 Expression / Binding
CD20 is expressed on pre-B cells and mature B lymphocytes (also known as B cells) and, to a lesser extent, on some natural killer (NK) cells and myeloid progenitor cells. CD20 is abundantly expressed by all B cells, regardless of the stage of maturation, and the expression of CD20 decreases with aging. CD20 is known to be bind to major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), CD40, BCR, and the C-terminal src kinase-binding protein (CBP) which interacts with Src kinases for B cell activation and survival. As a receptor protein, CD20 binds to ligands including anionic phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides and sulfated moieties. Through its high affinity binding to these ligands, CD20 modulates cell activation, proliferation and protection against apoptosis.
Role of CD20 in Disease
Expression of CD20 on malignant cells correlates with their proliferation rate and with poor prognosis. It has been shown that the absence or reduced number of CD20 positive lymphocytes impairs T-cell mediated immunity, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. However, it has been demonstrated that CD20 can be re-expressed by tumor cells in the presence of TNFa and several studies have shown that CD20 expression increases during certain inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. CD20 is expressed in most follicular lymphomas (FL), mainly at the border between lymphoma cells and normal B cells. CD20 marker is also used to assess the degree of bone marrow depression in people with lymphoma. CD20 has been reported as a prognostic marker in both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL).
Therapeutic Potential of CD20
CD20 marker is a target of interest for the development of monoclonal antibodies that induce cell lysis or inhibit cellular function. Some clinically relevant examples are rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 approved for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Anti CD20 CAR-T cell therapy is also a promising approach in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. CD20 is a target for treatment of multiple autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).
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CD22 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of mature lymphocytes. CD22 is a member of the SIGLEC family (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin), which are membrane proteins that possess an immunoglobulin variable-like fold, a single transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tails. CD22 also has a key role in the regulation of B-cell trafficking through blood vessels, the regulation of apoptosis, T-cell regulation and probably in the control of cell proliferation. CD22 is thought to play an important role in lymphocytes migration. CD22 contributes to the formation of B-cell germinal centres and it facilitates antigen receptor clustering. CD22 is also important in initiating B cell differentiation from stem cells in the bone marrow.
CD22 Expression / Binding
CD22 is expressed on approximately 90% of peripheral blood lymphocytes and also found in majority of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. CD22 is expressed on the cell surface of lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. CD22 binds to a number of ligands, including complement component 3b (C3b) with high affinity, and Fc portion of IgA with low affinity. CD22 interacts with the B cell receptor (BCR) to induce antigen-independent proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis. CD22 regulates B cell maturation, and signaling through CD22 will cause increased phosphorylation of CD3 chains as well as IL-2 gene transcription.
Role of CD22 in Disease
CD22 is associated with cancers like T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. CD22 can lead to increased proliferation of leukemia cells by activating cAMP or Lyn signaling pathways. An abnormal lack of functional CD22 receptor has been observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and this has been shown to be correlated with disease progression. Deficiency of CD22 causes an impaired ability to control viral infections, and also compromises natural-killer-cell mediated cytotoxicity. CD22 molecule has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus.
Therapeutic Potential of CD22
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells have been found to lose their surface expression of CD22 when they transform into malignant clones. Several therapeutic strategies targeting the CD22 molecule are currently being tested in clinical trials for treatment of autoimmune diseases and B-cell proliferative disorders. CD22-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in treating B cell malignancies. Epratuzuma is a monoclonal antibody with high affinity for CD22, which has been approved by the FDA in 2014 for treatment of B-cell proliferative disorders. Epratuzumab is currently being used to treat autoimmune diseases, particularly lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome.
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CD24 is a differentiation antigen found on the surface of lymphocytes. CD24 has been shown to act as a co-stimulatory molecule on T cells (together with OX40L and ICOSLG), which allows for an increase in T cell proliferation and survival, and cytokine production. Effector T cells express high levels of CD24 whereas central memory and regulatory T cells express low levels of CD24, which allows for a potential differentiation between various types of T cell response after antigen exposure. CD24 is also required for the development of NK cells, as shown by studies in CD24 gene-deficient mice which lack mature NK cells. The interaction between NK and NKT cells with CD24 results in an increase in IL-2 production, cytotoxicity and cytokine release.
CD24 Expression / Binding
CD24 is expressed on the surface of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, NK cells and dendritic cells. CD24 expression can also be detected in a number of other cell types including hepatocytes, endothelial cells, intestinal epithelium and renal tubular epithelial cells. It has been shown that CD24 expression provides functional advantages to these cells by allowing for increased adhesion onto molecules of the CD24 ligand family. CD24 binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SLC, to facilitate migration of immune cells.
Role of CD24 in Disease
CD24 has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. CD24 positive B cells have been identified in patients with psoriasis vulgaris and vitiligo, as well as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease where they seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of these disorders by promoting the differentiation of pathogenic T cells. Mutations in CD24 have been reported to cause atypical chronic granulomatous disease (aCGH). High levels of CD24 have been reported in HIV-1 infected individuals. It has been suggested that CD24 may play a role during HIV infection by affecting the differentiation, maturation, and trafficking of immune cells, as well as their interaction with extracellular matrix proteins. In addition to this, it has been shown that CD24 may be essential for the survival of Toxoplasma gondii. CD24 is expressed in most polyclonal B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, where it was suggested to help the tumor cells avoid host immune surveillance. CD24 is overexpressed in several types of endometrial cancers, where it can serve as a tumor marker. CD24 expression was especially high in stromal tumors with lymphovascular invasion. The presence of CD24 also has been shown to be prognostic for survival in cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Therapeutic Potential of CD24
Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD24 enhance phagocytosis and killing of CD24+ cancer cells by macrophages. Ovarian cancer and triple-negative breast cancers expressing CD24 can be effectively treated with an antibody that blocks the interaction between CD24 and its receptor on macrophages, Siglec-10. Anti-CD24 monoclonal antibodies induce a significant growth inhibition in colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing the tumor-initiating properties of cancer stem cells. Humanized anti-CD24 monoclonal antibodies can be used as a therapy for CD24+ hematological malignancies. An anti-CD24 monoclonal antibody shows potent antitumor activity against neuroblastoma.
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CD25, also known as Cluster of Differentiation 25, alpha chain of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL2RA) and T11 antigen, is a 65kDa transmembrane glycoprotein found on the cell surface of activated lymphocytes. CD25 is a member of a gene family that includes CD5, CD10 and CD19, all of which have similar structure and function. Unlike CD25+ B-cells that function in the adaptive immune response against an antigen, CD25+ T-cells are involved in cellular immune responses. Studies of mice deficient in either IL-2 or its receptor show evidence for defective T-cell immunity, suggesting the role of CD25 is to mediate cellular immune response. Loss of CD25 expression correlates with increased IL-2 production, improved Cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) function and Th1 differentiation, whereas concomitant upregulation serves to limit immune responsiveness towards self antigens.
CD25 Expression / Binding
Scientists originally believed CD25 was expressed on natural killer cells but it has since been shown to also be expressed on activated T lymphocytes. In contrast to CD4 or CD8 antigens that are restricted to either alpha/beta or gamma/delta T-cell receptors respectively, CD25 appears on both types of receptor bearing cells. CD25 is also expressed on mature natural killer (NK) cells, recent thymic emigrants (RTE), eosinophils, basophils and some CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. CD25 binds with the high-affinity IL-2 which transmits an intracellular signalling cascade that upregulates expression of Bcl-2 family members which eventually suppresses apoptosis of CD4 T-cells. CD25 thereby acts as a high-affinity IL-2 receptor, allowing for mediation of T-cell proliferation.
Role of CD25 in Disease
CD25 is now routinely used as one of several surrogate biomarkers for identification of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) because its expression increases with increasing numbers of these suppressor cytokine-secreting T-cells. CD25 may be useful as a biomarker of senescent T-cells. CD25 (and CD127) is one of the earliest T- cell markers detectable on thymocytes before CD8 becomes expressed. CD25 has also been considered as a potential marker for antigen-activated effector/memory CTLs. High CD25 levels can be used as a biomarker for autoimmune diseases such as lupus, addison's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis and graves' disease. CD25, is also utilized in HIV/AIDS research to assess coreceptor tropism. CD25 over-expression on CD4 T-cells has been reported in graft versus host disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and with Epstein Barr virus infection. In chronic kidney disease, CD25 may be a useful marker of proliferating podocytes. CD25 is a potential biomarker of activated NK cells in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. CD25 expression can be detected in more than 90% of malignant lymphomas and it has been shown that CD25 expression on these malignant cells correlates with poor prognosis. CD25 expression can also indicate a response to treatment for Hodgkin's disease. A study found that CD25 is a tumor-specific antigen of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, making it an optimal target for immunotherapy. Tumor cells can also present CD25 to trigger their own death by activating the immune system.
Therapeutic Potential of CD25
Researchers have used CD25 as an immunotherapy target for treating multiple sclerosis with T-regulatory cells. CD25 has also been identified as a potential target for the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this is still currently experimental. Siltuximab is a monoclonal antibody which seeks to inhibit CD25 activation for treatment of immune disorders. The use of anti-CD25 antibodies presents the risk of inducing apoptosis in T suppressor cell populations, thus reducing Treg function and causing autoimmune pathology. Retro Therapeutics is developing clinical stage therapies that prevent CD25 from being expressed on the cell surface. Their lead compound (NCT02983226) has demonstrated its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of activated T-cells, without impacting Tregs or other lymphocyte sub-populations. This selective effect ensures minimal impact on healthy immune function.
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CD30 is a cell surface receptor involved in the activation and differentiation of T-cells and B-cells. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and encodes a protein with an extracellular cysteine-rich domain, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail that is involved in cell differentiation. It has been suggested that CD30 plays a role in cell adhesion. CD30 is involved in the immune response and has a crucial role in the rejection of tumours by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.
CD30 Expression / Binding
CD30 is a cell-surface receptor found on endothelial cells, epithelial cells, keratinocytes and lymphoid cells. CD30 is a protein found on Reed-Sternberg cells, which are present in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). CD30 binds to its ligand CD30-L, which is also known as CD153, this interaction plays a potential role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. CD30 protein also interacts with other members in the tumor necrosis factor receptor family such as CD27, TNFAIP3 and TRAF6.
Role of CD30 in Disease
CD30 can be used as an immunohistochemical marker for Hodgkin lymphoma because it is expressed on 100% of Reed-Sternberg cells. In addition, small amounts of CD30 marker have been detected in T-cell leukaemia and anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Presence of antibodies against CD30 might indicate a poor prognosis in cancers such as T-cell lymphomas. Genetic variations in the CD30 gene are associated with several autoimmune diseases, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A specific single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD30 gene has been identified as a possible predictor of early clinical relapse in patients with SLE who had previously achieved remission with cyclophosphamide. Mutations in the CD30 gene are also associated with other autoimmune diseases such as paraneoplastic neurological disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis. CD30 has also been linked to neuroblastoma, a type of cancer that affects infants and young children.
Therapeutic Potential of CD30
Brentuximab vedotin is a CD30 directed, antibody-drug conjugate that consists of an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody linked to a chemotherapeutic agent. Brentuximab vedotin is FDA approved for refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but it can also be used experimentally in other CD30-positive lymphomas and autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, castleman disease and rheumatoid arthritis. CAR T-cell therapies targeting CD30 have also been shown to be beneficial in treating CD30-positive lymphomas.
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CD31, also known as PECAM-1, was originally described as a cell surface antigen present on platelets and megakaryocytes. CD31 is a member of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of all lineages within the vascular system. CD31 antigen belongs to PECAM proteins that are now recognized as belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily because they contain large numbers of extracellular immunoglobulin domains with conserved C2-type calcium binding sites. CD31 acts as an adhesion molecule that facilitates leukocyte migration to sites of infection or tissue damage by binding intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. CD31 also functions in concert with LFA-3 and Mac-1 in order to facilitate CD14+ monocyte migration. CD31 functions in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells by regulating CD34+ CD42a interactions during adhesion and trans endothelial migration. CD31 also functions as a cell surface calcium ion pump that controls the distribution of calcium into and out of intracellular stores in platelets. CD31 is an established biomarker for angiogenesis during vascularization. CD31 is believed to play an important role in cancer metastasis due to its ability to support dynamic multi-directional interactions with other proteins on both endothelial cells and platelets. CD31 is also involved in thrombus formation when bound with fibrinogen or TSP1.
CD31 Expression / Binding
CD31 is expressed on CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, CD14+ monocytes and CD16+ NK cells in humans. CD31 is present on platelets at their proplatelet extensions. CD31 has also been reported to be expressed on endothelial smooth muscle cells but not on cardiac myocytes. CD31 has been shown to bind thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), CD41a CD36, CD24 and neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). CD31 also binds directly to fibrinogen or indirectly through thrombospondin 1 (TSP1).
Role of CD31 in Disease
CD31 has been used as a cancer biomarker due to its increased expression in various cancers including myeloid malignancies. CD31 plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis. CD31 expression can be used to discriminate between malignant and benign oral tumors. CD31 may be a useful predictor of metastatic disease in lung cancer. Patients with CD31+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) had poorer outcomes than CD31- cases. CD31 has been used as a prognostic marker in different types of cancer such as gastric, hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. CD31 can be an additional predictor for metastatic relapse after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as part of the treatment regimen for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CD31 expression is associated with poor prognosis, according to a meta-analysis studying CD31 expression in colorectal cancer. A study looking at CD31 expression on inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor cells suggests its use as a potential diagnostic marker. CD31 expression is associated with poor prognosis, according to a meta-analysis studying myeloid CD31+ cells in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Therapeutic Potential of CD31
CD31 is a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Antibodies against CD31 can be used to deplete CD31+ cells. CD31 has been shown to interact with anti-cancer drugs such as elesclomol, mocetinostat and the CDK inhibitor roscovitine. Anti-CD31 monoclonal antibodies have been used for CD31-targeted therapy of myeloid malignancies and CD31 siRNA treatment. CD31 has also been used as an immune checkpoint inhibitor target for solid tumors, due to its role in inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis.
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CD33 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of cells belonging to myeloid lineage. CD33 binds to CD3 in order to help T-cells recognize antigens bound to class II major histocompatibility molecules that are displayed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Other ligands for CD33 include CD62L and CD64. CD33 plays a role in various immune functions by enabling T-cell killing of neutrophil precursors via phagocytosis, enhancing neutrophil adhesion to endothelium at inflammatory sites. CD33 also regulates dendritic cell maturation which T helper 2 responses against extracellular pathogens and CD4 response against allergens. CD33 is also involved in later stages of antigen presentation. CD33 antibodies have been shown to induce apoptosis in CD33 expressing cells. CD33 has a cytoplasmic tail containing motifs for C1q binding and degradation similar to C1qRp (complement component 1 q receptor). It was originally thought that CD33 mediated signal transduction occurred through the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) via ITAM phosphorylation by Lyn or Syk but it is now known CD33 does not activate allogeneic T-cells when co-engaged with class II MHC molecules. CD33 functions as an ion channel, allowing ions such as potassium to flow in and out of cells through the protein.
CD33 Expression / Binding
CD33 is expressed on early hematopoietic precursors, proplatelet-forming megakaryocytes, mature neutrophils and a subset of monocytes/macrophages. While the CD33 antigen is usually considered myeloid-specific, it has been shown to be upregulated on lymphoid cells in conditions such as cancer. CD33 expression decreases as a cell matures from a myeloid stem cell to a monocyte to an immature granulocyte before finally reaching its mature form. CD33 is generally localized within mitochondria within the cell; however, when there is increased cellular stress due to hypoxia or lack of nutrients, CD33 is found on the cell membrane instead.
Role of CD33 in Disease
CD33 has been studied as a biomarker for cancer because CD33 is used to study CD3 T-cells, which can be altered during certain cancers, especially in myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myeloid leukemia. CD33 may also be used therapeutically to target CD3 T-cells within tumors. CD33 is one of the CD antigens that are used to create a "pan-CD" test for leukemia diagnosis. CD33 was also identified as a possible prognostic marker for poor survival rates in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. CD33 expression has been identified as a predictor of response to Imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia patients with the t(15;17) mutation whereby these patients were associated with a reduced risk of relapse. Imatinib inhibits CD33 by binding to it and preventing potassium ions from passing through, therefore CD33 can be detected in leukemia patients after Imatinib treatment.
Therapeutic Potential of CD33
CD3 binds CD33 to induce apoptosis (cell death) and CD33-based therapeutics can be used to kill CD3 T-cells. CD3 antagonists have shown promising results in preclinical trials, by increasing CD3 T-cell cytotoxicity and reducing CD33 cells. CD33-binding antagonists are being developed that will bind CD33 on CD3 cells and prevent CD33 from functioning, thus preventing CD3 T-cell apoptosis and increasing its ability to kill tumors. This has been shown to kill tumors in mouse models of leukemia. CD33 has been studied as a potential therapeutic for sickle cell anemia because CD33 inhibits vaso-occlusive crisis. CD33 is associated with increased blood flow and oxygen concentration, which alleviates sickle cell symptoms such as pain and organ damage due to hypoxia. Cell signaling inhibitors are also being developed which bind CD33 directly, interrupting its ion channel activity without affecting other functions associated with CD33. These drugs are still in early trials, but have shown promise as treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CD33 has also been used as a target for cancer nanotherapies, with CD33 binding nanoparticles being developed that will accumulate in tumors and deliver a chemotherapeutic payload directly to the tumor cells. CD33 is currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
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CD34 is a surface glycoprotein on peripheral blood stem cells and progenitor cells. CD34 also plays an important role in cell division, proliferation and maturation. In normal cells, CD34 is involved in cell maturation and release of growth factors, while in malignant cells it plays a role in division and metastasis. CD34 is involved in the later stages of blood cell development, and is implicated in the transport of molecules across endothelial cells lining blood vessels. CD34 functions in the adhesion and extravasation of quiescent progenitor cells during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow.
CD34 Expression / Binding
CD34 is expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, precursor cells of the monocytes and macrophages, endothelial precursor cells and the early thymocyte progenitor population. CD34 is also present on the osteoblasts in growing bones. CD34 binds to its ligand, Von Willebrand Factor, to regulate cellular functions such as proliferation and differentiation. CD34 binds to integrin α6β1 and regulates the adhesion of hematopoietic cells to the vascular wall.
Role of CD34 in Disease
CD34 is expressed at abnormally high levels in tumors, which has led to its use in immunohistochemistry as a marker for the diagnosis of various hematological cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, promyelocytic leukemia and T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. The presence of CD34 in tumour tissue is generally considered to be an indicator of disease progression, but the exact role it plays in carcinogenesis remains unclear. CD34 has also been used as a marker for stem cell transplantation-associated leukemias, and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Elevated levels of CD34 have been demonstrated in melanoma, where it contributes to angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD34
Anti-CD34 therapy has been tested as a method of both killing cancer cells and protecting them from normal immune system attack. In preclinical studies, anti CD34 monoclonal antibodies have been used to protect cancer cells from cell death, allowing them to actively reproduce. Antibodies against CD34 protein is also an important tool for adoptive immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies against CD34 receptor enhanced natural killer cells killing of certain types of cancer cells. Anti-CD34 monoclonal antibodies are being studied as treatments for autoimmune diseases, they appear to prevent the production of T cells that attack healthy molecules in the body. Miltefosine, a drug used to treat certain types of cancer, specifically induces CD34 expression in human megakaryocytes and prevents programmed cell death in these cells.
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CD38 is a cell surface glycoprotein that can function as an enzyme, with NAD-depleting and intracellular signaling activity, or as a receptor with adhesive functions. CD38 has been shown to affect a variety of immune cell functions, including immunomodulation and effector activities during inflammation. CD38 was identified as a cell surface protein that can be used to determine the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. CD38 has been identified as an efficient human erythroid differentiation marker on CD34+ cells. CD38 has the potential to act as an antigen for T-cells, and is thought to play a role in differentiation/maturation of CD4+ CD25- regulatory T-cells.
CD38 Expression / Binding
CD38 is widely expressed in cells and tissues, including CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, platelets and B-lymphocytes. CD38 binds CD157/CD157b and CD73/CD73b to aid in cell adhesion and migration. CD38 regulates leukocyte extravasation by acting as a receptor for CD73 following injury or infection. CD38 activation leads to NAD degradation by CD38 itself or CD73. NAD-depleting activity of CD38 stimulates the cADPR/PARP pathway for intracellular signaling. CD38 regulates B-cell signaling through the activation of calcium-dependent phospholipase D and dephosphorylates immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs within target proteins such as spleen tyros kinase (Syk). CD38 can also induce T-cell apoptosis via CD27/CD70/ FasL. CD38 has been shown to activate the JNK, NF-κB and MAPK pathways, which lead to transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL6.
Role of CD38 in Disease
CD38 surface staining levels have been identified as a potential marker for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), which is an antibody-producing type of hematological cancer. CD38 protein is found at high levels within tumor cells from patients with B-CLL. CD38 protein is also found at high levels in 5% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CD38 protein is also commonly expressed in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CD38 has potential as a biomarker for early detection of pancreatic cancer lesions, which may allow for earlier interventions and improved outcomes. Studies have shown that higher CD38 expression correlates with larger tumor size, greater histological grade, increased Ki67 and p53 mutations. CD38 may play an important role in breast cancer progression by modulating cytokine production and inflammation. CD38 expression is increased in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumors with lymph node metastasis compared to non-metastatic IDC.
Therapeutic Potential of CD38
Inhibitors of CD38 are being studied as possible treatments for B-CLL. Monoclonal antibody therapy targeting CD38 would be more effective in killing CLL cells with a lower risk than chemotherapy. Isatuximab is a CD38-specific monoclonal antibody, approved by the FDA in 2011 to treat CD38+ CD4+ T cell lymphomas. Daratumumab is an anti-CD38 human monoclonal antibody that has shown has shown promising results in myeloma. Daratumumab inhibition of CD38 leads to upregulation of CD56+ CD3+ NK cells and CD8+ cytotoxic activity within the tumor microenvironment. CD38-CAR T cell therapy is effective in depleting CD38+ CD4+ T cells from the tumor microenvironment. CD38-CAR T cells have been shown to be more effective than CD19 CAR probes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Single domain antibodies (VHHs) and nanobodies against CD38 have been shown to be capable of inhibiting CD38 enzymatic activity independent of CD38 dimerization. CD38 inhibitors also show promise as treatments for autoimmune disorders such as IBDs, CD40L-dependent psoriasis and multiple sclerosis-like conditions with upregulated CD4+ T cell proliferation. Clinical trials investigating CD38 inhibitors in IBDs have shown promising results in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with either CD4+ CD25+ or CD8+ T cell hyperactivity. Monoclonal antibodies against CD38 may provide new treatments for the prevention of allograft rejection in bone marrow transplants and for prolonging graft survival following cardiac transplantation.
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CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family found on activated T cells. CD40 is a receptor for the cytokine BAFF, a protein that plays a major role in B cell homeostasis and activation. Defects in CD40 may lead to antibody deficiency due to lack of mature B cells. CD40 plays a role in T cell adhesion, activation, differentiation and signalling in lymphocytes.
CD40 Expression / Binding
CD40 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, NKT cells, macrophages, myeloid cells, dendritic cells and epithelial cells. CD40 is expressed on endothelial cells and epithelial cells in the thymic cortex, and acts as a co-stimulatory molecule for T cell proliferation. CD40 is a receptor that, when bound by CD154 (also called CD40L or CD40 ligand), serves as a co-stimulatory signal for T cell activation. CD40 has been shown to interact with TRAF1 in neuronal cells.
Role of CD40 in Disease
CD40 is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoantibodies to CD40 are associated with Sjogren's syndrome. A study demonstrated that anti-CD40L antibodies are associated with serositis, arthritis, renal damage and are significantly increased in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CD40 expression has been demonstrated in several malignant neoplasms such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and multiple myeloma (MM). The ligand for CD40, CD154 is constitutively expressed on B cells in most cases of CLL and other B cell malignancies, and serves a marker for disease severity.
Therapeutic Potential of CD40
CD40 agonists have been shown to activate antigen presenting cells and promote anti-tumor T cell responses. In an early Phase 1b trial, the investigational anti-CD40 agonist seliciclib was well tolerated and had antitumor activity in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Monoclonal antibodies against CD40 also foster cytotoxic myeloid cells with the potential to control cancer in the absence of T-cell immunity. Selicrelumab is an anti-CD40 antibody which showed safety and efficacy in advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. Anti-CD40 antibody, KPL-404, is also used to treat autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
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Cluster Of Differentiation 52 (CD52) is a highly expressed membrane glycoprotein which is present on the surface of immune cells such as lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells. The proliferation of CD52 markers enables researchers to distinguish between healthy and cancerous cells in the medical field. The peptide length of CD52 is 12 amino acid which is anchored to glycosylphosphatidylinositol. As a result of its negative charge researchers believe this molecule has an anti-adhesion function, allowing cells to migrate freely. It is known that CD52 binds with the immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif that contains sialic acid binding lectin.
CD52 Expression / Binding
CD52 is found on white blood cells, dendritic cells and monocyte cells.The function of CD52 is not fully known but it is present on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) cancer cells. CD52 marker is also found on the surface of immune cells that have been affected by an autoimmune disease.
Role of CD52 in Disease
CD52 marker is used to treat certain types of arthritis and lupus. In addition, it can be used to monitor a patient's response to treatment because CD52 marker levels tend to decrease as the patient recovers from their autoimmune disease. CD52 marker testing is currently being tested for detecting macular degeneration in its early stages before it can cause blindness. CD52 marker therapies are currently being developed for Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis and CD52 is used to treat certain types of arthritis and lupus. CD52 markers can be used to identify CD52 antigen in a sample, such as blood, tissue or fluid, using CD52 antibody labeling. Alemtuzumab is an anti-CD52 recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody which is used for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Therapeutic Potential of CD52
Because the CD52 marker is an important component of CD52 immunotherapy for treating cancer, it allows oncologists to restrict their treatment to only tumorous, CD52-expressing cells. CD52 marker is also used in CD52 stem cell transplantation for treating cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma. You can remove CD52 marker positive cells from a patient's body and then reintroducie healthy CD52 markers cells after chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
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CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54), also known as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), is located on the short arm of chromosome 6 in humans. CD54 is expressed primarily on the surface of hematopoietic cells such as CD34+ stem cells, CD19+ B-cells, CD4 T-cells, CD14 macrophages and epithelial cells. CD54 acts as an adhesion molecule by binding to E-selectin, and this interaction plays a significant role in inflammatory processes and cancer metastasis. CD54 binds to CD44, which results in increased rolling and adhesion of leukocytes through endothelial cell layers during inflammation. CD54 is involved in migration and phagocytosis of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. CD54 has been used to track CD34+ stem cells in umbilical cord blood transplants and may also be useful in tracking hematopoietic recovery in patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. CD54 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects that can help treat rheumatoid arthritis.
CD54 Expression / Binding
CD54 expression is upregulated on neutrophil activation, monocytes also increase CD54 expression when stimulated by cytokines such as IL4 or GM-CSF. CD54 is involved in both innate immunity through recognition by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA 4) expressed on killer T-cells and adaptive immunity due to increased binding with E ligand (E-selectin) that is expressed on endothelial cells. CD54 is also involved in angiogenesis by binding to CD166 on endothelial cells.
Role of CD54 in Disease
CD54 interacts with vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) at transition zones between tumor cells and lymphatic vessels. CD54 expression has been found to be increased in various types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer and melanoma, and CD54 expression has been shown to promote tumor cell metastasis. CD54 is involved in angiogenesis of tumor cells by promoting the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). CD54 has been shown to increase tumor cell invasion through Akt and p38 MAPK pathway. CD54 combined with CD166 promotes VEGF-independent angiogenesis. CD54 also plays a role in regulating cancer stem cells by activating STAT3/VEGF axis, which induces tumor cell migration and invasion. Tumor microvessel density has been shown to be closely correlated with CD54 expression level. CD54 levels are elevated in the majority of primary gastric carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas, CD54 is also used as a biomarker for circulating tumor cells (CTCs). CD54 is over-expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells when CD166 is downregulated, which results in increased CD44/VEGF pathway activation and CD44 overexpression. CD54 is positively correlated with a reduced survival rate and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
Therapeutic Potential of CD54
Since CD54 has been shown to be involved in cancer progression and metastasis, targeting CD54 has been suggested as a therapeutic intervention to prevent tumor cell invasion. CD54 inhibition can potentially suppress angiogenesis by blocking CD44/MMP2 signaling pathway, which results in decreased VEGF secretion. CD54 can also induce apoptosis of tumor cells through CD70-CD40L pathway. Monoclonal antibodies against CD54 have shown promise for treating multiple melanoma in phage display studies. Anti-CD54 antibodies have been shown to prevent CD54 from binding with CD44 and CD166, which results in inhibition of tumor cell metastasis. Anti-CD54 monoclonal antibody has been shown to inhibit growth of colon cancer cell lines. BI-505 is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against CD54, which can be used to treat cancers such as melanoma and lung cancer. BI-505 can inhibit CD54 by preventing CD54 from binding to CD44 and CD166, thereby blocking angiogenesis and cancer cell metastasis. BI-505 has been shown to have tolerable safety profile with minimal side effects in humans when used for targeted therapy of cancers. BI-505 also exerts its antineoplastic effect via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and hyper-cross-linking-induced apoptosis of CD54 expressing tumor cells.
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CD58 is a protein found on the surface of white blood cells, it has two immunoglobulin-like regions and an alpha-helix that serves to mediate binding functions. CD58 plays an important role in the immune response by recruiting other white blood cells to fight off an infection or disease. CD58 also helps protect white blood cells against phagocytosis or apoptosis. CD58 is one of the proteins involved in the complement system and also binds to immune complexes (antibody-antigen complexes) in order to facilitate immune complex clearance.
CD58 Expression / Binding
CD58 is expressed on T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes. After activation by an antigen presenting cell (APC), the CD58–antigen complex binds to 2B4 or CD48 present on T cells which triggers a cascade of events including upregulation of CD28 and downregulation of CTLA4, leading to T cell proliferation. CD58 can bind to phosphocholine expressed on apoptotic neutrophils, preventing them from being recognized as targets by the immune system. CD58acts as an adhesion molecule by binding to LFA-1, this interaction enables adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells.
Role of CD58 in Disease
CD58 is a marker of activation which is increased in white blood cells during disease progression. Patients with higher CD58 levels have been shown to have significantly lower survival rates from AIDS-related lymphomas. Upregulation of CD58 correlates with the appearance of abnormal tissue architecture and the onset of Kaposi sarcoma lesions. CD58 levels have been used as a prognostic marker in early detection, and may help to identify patients who would benefit from preventative treatment with chemoprophylaxis. CD58 was upregulated in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and Sjogren's syndrome. CD58 expression was also found to be high in the synovial cells isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), suggesting that CD58 has an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD58
CD58 is over-expressed in B-cell haematological cancers and T-cell lymphomas. Anti-CD58 mAbs impede the binding of thymocyte with thymic epithelial cells, and thus suppress T cell activation. Anti-CD58 mAbs induce T cell unresponsiveness to mitogenic or antigenic stimuli and inhibit CTL-mediated killing by binding to the target cells. Therapies targeting CD58 on immune cells reduced the risk of cancer recurrence in patients with T-cell lymphomas. Monoclonal antibodies against CD58 can significantly block lysis of Lymphocyte Activated Killer (LAK) cells in chronic myeloid leukemia.
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CD66 is a protein that is found on the surface of certain blood cells. CD66 plays an important role in the immune system. It helps to protect the body from infection by identifying and destroying foreign cells. CD66 can also help to activate other cells of the immune system. CD66 is also involved in cell signaling, by regulating the activity of other proteins in the cell. CD66 has been shown to promote cell adhesion, migration and invasion.
CD66 Expression / Binding
CD66 is expressed on the surface of a variety of blood cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and lymphocytes. It is also found on some cancer cells. CD66 binds to a variety of ligands, including fibronectin, vitronectin, fibrinogen and laminin. CD66 binds to proteins in the extracellular matrix, which is the network of proteins and glycosaminoglycans that surrounds cells.
Role of CD66 in Disease
CD66 has been shown to be expressed in a range of different cancers, including colorectal, breast and pancreatic cancers. CD66 contributes to cancer progression by promoting cell adhesion, migration and invasion. It also appears to play a role in the development of metastases. Increased levels of CD66 were associated with improved survival in patients with ovarian cancer. It is possible that targeting CD66 could help to improve prognosis and treatment outcomes in cancer.
Therapeutic Potential of CD66
Anti-CD66 antibodies are thought to interfere with tumor growth by targeting CD66 on cancer cells and preventing them from interacting with other cells in the tumor microenvironment. There is evidence that anti-CD66 antibodies can reduce tumor growth and metastasis in animal models of cancer, and there is ongoing research into the potential therapeutic uses of these antibodies.
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CD74, also known as human invariant chain (Ii), is a cell-surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD74 was initially reported as the T cell receptor-associated CD antigen, but was found to be commonly expressed on APCs (antigen presenting cells) such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. CD74 acts as an antigen presenting cell costimulatory molecule involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. CD74 is an integral part of the immune system's defense against foreign substances by acting as a signal receptor involved in cell activation. CD74 is expressed during early stages of antigen presentation, but its expression is downregulated after stimulation with CD80 or CD86 ligands (B7-1 or B7-2).
CD74 Expression / Binding
CD74 is expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, but not on resting T cells. CD74 expression is upregulated by activation of NF-κB or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition to the immune system, CD74 can also be found outside of APCs where it acts as a regulator of cell adhesion and motility. CD74 has also recently been linked to various autoimmune diseases including MS and rheumatoid arthritis.
Role of CD74 in Disease
CD74 has been shown to be overexpressed in cancerous tissues through the aberrant upregulation of CD74 on CD8+ T cells. CD74 expression on CD8+ T cells has been found in colon cancer, gastric cancer, lung carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cervical cancer and breast cancer. CD74 is involved in tumor progression through enhanced antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. CD74-positive CD8+ T cells are associated with increased cytokine secretion and reduced apoptosis compared to CD74-negative CD8+ T cells. CD74 has been implicated as a marker for tumor-associated macrophages. The presence of CD74 on monocytic cells suggests that it may regulate processes such as inflammation and immune response at sites of tumor development. CD74 can be used as a biomarker for CD8+ T cell infiltration which is associated with increased CD4/CD8 ratio and poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CD74 expression on CD11c+ dendritic cells has been shown to correlate with a reduced overall survival rate in gastric cancer patients.
Therapeutic Potential of CD74
Targeting CD74 blocks cancer growth by preventing tumor development via inhibition of antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. CD74 blockade inhibited CD80 induced proliferation and cytokine production from CD4+ T cells, such as IL-2 and IFN-γ. Heat shock proteins were successfully used as an inhibitor of CD74 on cancerous monocytes, thereby leading to inhibited cancer growth. Since CD74 is also expressed by Treg cells, it has been proposed as an attractive therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. CD74 blocking antibodies are currently used in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to suppress CD4+ Th17 response. CD74 expression in CD4+ T cells is increased in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to healthy controls, and blocking CD74 was shown to suppress T cell infiltration in the synovial membrane of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Hu5F9G4, which is a monoclonal antibody against CD74, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and can be used as a therapeutic to inhibit CD74 expression on CD8+ T cells. CD74 blockade with Hu5F9G4 can be used for treatment of CD74-positive CD8+ T cell mediated autoimmune diseases. Milatuzumab is a humanized anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody that binds to the invariant chain of MHC II complexes and upregulates B-cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion molecule expression. Milatuzumab has been approved by the FDA for treatment of CD74-expressing CD20+ B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Preclinical efficacy of anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody (LL1 mAb) therapy has been demonstrated in B-lymphoma models. CD74 expression is frequent in multiple myeloma, with predominant expression by the malignant plasma cells, therefore CD74 represents a novel and promising target for treatment of multiple myeloma.
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CD87 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is expressed on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. CD87 has been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response and has been implicated in several pathological conditions including sepsis, inflammation and cancer. CD87 signals to T cells to proliferate and produce cytokines, and can also promote apoptosis in activated T cells.
CD87 Expression / Binding
CD87 is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and B cells. CD87 expression is upregulated by IL-12, which is produced by antigen presenting cells in response to infection or tumor antigens. CD87 binds to MHC class II molecules, which present peptides to T cells. CD87 activates T cells and promotes the production of cytokines by binding to CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4).
Role of CD87 in Disease
CD87 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. In these diseases, CD87 promotes the activation and differentiation of T cells, which leads to the destruction of healthy tissue. CD87 has also been implicated in cancer. In some cancers, CD87 expression is increased, and it has been shown to promote tumor growth and metastasis. CD87 may also play a role in the development of resistance to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Therapeutic Potential of CD87
Anti-CD87 antibodies have been shown to have therapeutic potential in a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. In addition, anti-CD87 antibodies have also been shown to be effective at reducing inflammation and promoting tissue healing, by reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD87 can slow the growth of cancer cells in-vitro and have been used to treat cancers such as ovarian cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.
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CD96 is a cell surface protein that helps to regulate cell-to-cell contact and communication. CD96 also helps to control the movement of cells and their interaction with other cells. CD96 plays an important role in the immune system during embryonic development, and is implicated in cancer progression. CD96 promotes the secretion of cytokines by T cells and macrophages, which helps to control immune responses. CD96 has also been shown to play a role in the activation of NK cells and T cells.
CD96 Expression / Binding
CD96 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on the surface of a number of different cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. CD96 binds to a molecule called CD155 (also known as poliovirus receptor or neuraminidase-2). This interaction helps to activate NK cells and promote their cytotoxic activity. CD96 binds to integrin α4β7, which is expressed on activated T cells and NK cells. CD96 also interacts with the protein FasL (Fas ligand) to promote apoptosis, or programmed cell death.
Role of CD96 in Disease
CD96 has been implicated in a number of autoimmune diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. CD96 promotes the activation of T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contributes to tissue damage in autoimmune diseases. Additionally, mutations in the CD96 gene have been linked to several human diseases, including immunodeficiency and lymphoma. CD96 expression is upregulated in various types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer. Upregulation of CD96 is thought to promote tumor growth and metastasis by enhancing tumor cell proliferation and invasion.
Therapeutic Potential of CD96
CD96 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) bind to the CD96 protein on the surface of the cancer cells, blocking the binding of growth factors that promote tumor growth. CD96 mAbs have been shown to be safe and effective in preclinical studies. In a study of human ovarian cancer cells, treatment with CD96 mAbs resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis. In another study, treatment with CD96 mAbs resulted in a decrease in tumor size and weight in mice with breast cancer. Additionally, treatment with CD96 mAbs has been shown to reduce the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the safety and efficacy of using CD96 mAbs as a therapy for ovarian cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer.
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CD98 is a protein that helps shuttle other proteins and nutrients into cells. CD98 has also been shown to play a role in immune cell function. In particular, it helps promote the activation and proliferation of T cells, which are important for fighting infection and diseases.
CD98 Expression / Binding
CD98 is expressed on the surface of many types of cells, including cancer cells, immune cells, and endothelial cells. CD98 binds to a molecule called sialic acid, which is found on the surface of many cells. By binding to sialic acid, CD98 can help transport other molecules into the cell.
Role of CD98 in Disease
Defective or absent CD98 can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases, while overexpression of CD98 can lead to cancer metastasis and a poor prognosis. CD98 is overexpressed in many types of cancer, and helps the cancer cells to metastasize. by helping the cancer cells to break free from the primary tumor and invade other tissues. Overexpression of CD98 has been linked with a poor prognosis in many cancers. CD98 has also been shown to be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD98
CD98 has shown great promise as a drug delivery agent and an immune stimulator. Potential therapeutic applications of CD98 include using CD98 to deliver chemotherapy drugs to cancer cells, using it to target immune cells in order to boost the immune response, and using it to help improve blood flow in patients with vascular diseases. By delivering chemotherapy drugs directly to the target cells, CD98 can help improve the efficacy of cancer therapies while reducing the potential for side effects.
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CD105 is a glycoprotein that helps to regulate cell-to-cell interactions and also helps to maintain the integrity of the vascular endothelium. CD105 is also involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration. The expression of CD105 is increased in response to injury, and it helps to promote the regeneration of tissues.
CD105 Expression / Binding
CD105 is a protein that is found on the surface of endothelial cells. It binds to VCAM-1, which is a protein that is found on the surface of monocytes. This interaction facilitates the adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium, and is an important step in the process of inflammation.
Role of CD105 in Disease
CD105 has been shown to be important in promoting tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. CD105 expression is increased in certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer. Additionally, high levels of CD105 are associated with a poor prognosis in many different types of cancer. CD105 has been shown to play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases, such as lupus erythematosus.
Therapeutic Potential of CD105
Anti-CD105 therapy is used to treat cancers such as renal cell carcinoma, ovarian cancer, and pancreatic cancer. In renal cell carcinoma, anti-CD105 therapy has been shown to be effective in slowing tumor growth and prolonging survival. In ovarian cancer, anti-CD105 therapy has been shown to improve response rates and progression-free survival. In pancreatic cancer, anti-CD105 therapy has been shown to reduce tumor size and improve patient outcomes.
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CD106, also known as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD106 is involved in cell-to-cell communication. CD106 is a cell adhesion molecule that has been shown to promote endothelial cell proliferation and migration. CD106 inhibits apoptosis and may be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.
CD106 Expression / Binding
CD106 is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels. CD106 has been shown to interact with other proteins such as TGF-beta receptor I (TGFBR1) and heparin sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2). Binding of CD106 to TGF-beta leads to activation of certain cells called fibroblasts, which is required for wound healing. CD106 binds to a molecule called VEGF, which is involved in the growth and development of new blood vessels.
Role of CD106 in Disease
CD106 has also been shown to play a role in the development of tumours, and may be used as a biomarker for diagnosis of cancers such as ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. CD106 may play a role in stimulating the immune response in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma. Defects in CD106 can lead to problems with blood vessel function, and lead to conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and atherosclerosis (a build-up of fatty deposits on the inside of the arteries).
Therapeutic Potential of CD106
Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD106 have been found to be effective against a range of cancers including ovarian, breast, liver, prostate and lung cancer. CD106 blockade was found to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in mice with lung cancer. Another study showed that effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs can be improved by adding a protein known as RGD, that binds to CD106.
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CD117, also known as c-kit, is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that helps to control the development of different tissues in the body. In addition to its major role in haematopoiesis, CD117 has been implicated in promoting cell growth and survival. CD117 helps in the formation of new blood vessels and is also involved in the development of nerve cells.
CD117 Expression / Binding
CD117 is expressed on the surface of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mast cells, melanocytes, germ cells, and a subset of neurons. CD117 is also found on other tissues, such as the skin, intestine, and prostate gland. CD117 binds to a variety of growth factors and cytokines, including stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3), which may play a role in its pro-tumorigenic effects.
Role of CD117 in Disease
CD117 is expressed on a variety of tumor types including leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and skin cancers. CD117 has been shown to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that is associated with cancer metastasis. CD117 has also been implicated in autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. In these diseases, CD117 promotes the destruction of healthy cells by the immune system.
Therapeutic Potential of CD117
CD117 is a promising therapeutic target for cancer, with multiple drugs such as imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), sunitinib malate (Sutent), dasatinib (Sprycel) and nilotinib (Tasigna) currently available for clinical use. Monoclonal antibodies against CD117 interfere with the ability of CD117 to bind to growth factors, which may lead to the inhibition of tumor cell growth. While the effectiveness of CD117-targeted drugs varies depending on the tumor type, CD117 therapies offer hope for patients with cancers that are refractory to other treatments.
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CD120b is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, which serves as a marker for activated B cells. CD120b has been shown to be a key regulator of B-cell activation and function. CD120b is required for efficient antigen-specific antibody production. CD120b also plays a role in the development and maintenance of memory B cells.
CD120b Expression / Binding
CD120b is expressed on the majority of activated B cells in human peripheral blood. CD120b binds to TNF-alpha with high affinity, and this interaction is necessary for the optimal activation of B cells.
Role of CD120b in Disease
CD120b is involved in cancer progression by promoting the survival and expansion of malignant B cells. CD120b plays a role in the development of B-cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CD120b causes autoimmune disorders by promoting the survival and expansion of autoreactive B cells. CD120b has been implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjogren's syndrome.
Therapeutic Potential of CD120b
CD120b is a promising target for the development of new therapies for autoimmune diseases and B-cell malignancies. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD120b are currently being designed to selectively bind to CD120b and block its interaction with other proteins. This can inhibit the activation of B cells and reduce inflammation in the affected tissues. Clinical studies have shown that treatment with anti-CD120b antibodies can improve the symptoms of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren's syndrome.
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CD126, also known as IL-6 receptor, is a marker for T cells. CD126 helps to regulate the immune system by interacting with other proteins on the surface of T cells. CD126 can also bind to cytokines, which helps to promote the growth and survival of T cells. CD226 has been shown to play a role in T cell activation, cytokine production, and proliferation.
CD126 Expression / Binding
CD126 is expressed on the surface of T cells, B cells, and monocytes. CD126 is also found in low levels in other tissues such as the liver, kidney, and pancreas. CD126 binds to CD226 (DNAM-1) with high affinity.
Role of CD126 in Disease
CD126 has been shown to be a biomarker for several types of cancer, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and pancreatic cancer. CD126 may be used as a marker for therapeutic response or as a prognostic marker for cancer patients. CD126 can be used to diagnose cancer by detecting the presence of T cells. CD126 can also be used to measure the response to cancer treatment by detecting the amount of T cells present. CD126 is also implicated in autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD126
CD126 inhibitors may help to block the activity of CD126 and reduce the growth and survival of cancer cells. CD126 inhibitors are being developed as potential therapeutic agents for cancers such as ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colorectal cancer. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD126 have been shown to improve the survival of patients with ovarian cancer. CD126 inhibitors may also be used as biomarkers to help identify patients who are likely to respond to CD126 inhibitors.
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CD130 is a cell surface receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in cell signalling. CD130 is a receptor protein that helps cells interact with their environment. CD130 is required for the homing of stem cells to their target destinations in the body.
CD130 Expression / Binding
CD130 is found on the surfaces of many different types of cells, including immune cells, cancer cells, and stem cells. CD130 binds to cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6 and PDGF-BB to promote cell survival. CD130 also binds to the tumor suppressor p53 to inhibit tumor growth.
Role of CD130 in Disease
CD130 is often overexpressed in tumors, and can promote tumor growth and metastasis. CD130 is implicated in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, where it is thought to play a role in the activation and proliferation of immune cells. CD130 has also been implicated in autoimmune diabetes, where it is thought to play a role in the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells.
Therapeutic Potential of CD130
CD130 is a promising target for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Antibodies against CD130 are currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis. CD130 deficient mice have abnormal stem cell trafficking and reduced healing capacity after injury. Blocking CD130 may help prevent tumors from growing and spreading. CD130 inhibitors may help prevent the destruction of beta cells and improve insulin production in people with autoimmune diabetes.
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CD134, also known as OX40, is a receptor protein that is found on the surface of T cells. CD134 is involved in T cell activation, and it has been shown to be important in the development of autoimmune diseases.
CD134 Expression / Binding
CD134 is expressed on the surface of activated T cells, and also on mast cells. CD134 binds to the OX40 ligand, this interaction between CD134 and OX40 ligand promotes the proliferation of T cells.
Role of CD134 in Disease
When CD134 is activated, it can promote the differentiation of T cells into Th1 cells. Th1 cells are responsible for the production of cytokines that promote inflammation, and they are responsible for the development of autoimmune diseases. CD134 has also been shown to be involved in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD134
CD134 is a promising target for the treatment of cancer, allergies, and asthma. Drugs that block CD134 may be able to stop the growth of tumors, reduce the severity of allergic reactions, and improve the outcome of cancer treatment.
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CD137 (4-1BB) is a co-stimulatory molecule involved in the activation of T cells. When CD137 is activated, it causes the T cell to divide and produce more cytokines, which then activates more T cells. This process can create a chain reaction that amplifies the immune response.
CD137 Expression / Binding
CD137 is found on the surface of T lymphocytes. CD137 binds to a protein called BAFF, and this interaction helps to activate T cells and B cells.
Role of CD137 in Disease
CD137 has been shown to play an important role in cancer, as it can help to promote the development and activation of T cells that can attack and kill cancer cells. CD137 has been found to be overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tissues, and blocking its activity using specific antibodies or peptides can reduce inflammation and joint damage in mouse models of RA.
Therapeutic Potential of CD137
Activating CD137 with antibodies or small molecules can inhibit the activation of autoreactive T cells and suppress the development of autoimmune disease. CD137 is also being explored as a potential target for cancer treatment. One approach is to use drugs that target CD137 to help activate T cells and fight cancer. Another approach is to use vaccines that stimulate the body to produce more CD137, which can help fight cancer. CD137 has also been shown to be important in helping the immune system remember previous infections, such as HIV or hepatitis B. This could lead to the use of CD137 as a way to help the immune system fight these infections.
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CD138, also known as syndecan-1, is a type of proteoglycan that is found on the surface of cells. CD138 helps to regulate cell growth and division. CD138 plays a role in a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. It also helps to protect cells from damage by environmental toxins and helps to promote wound healing.
CD138 Expression / Binding
CD138 is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells in blood vessels, and is also found in high levels on the surface of stem cells. CD138 binds to a molecule called CD154 (also known as CD40 ligand), which is found on the surface of certain immune cells.
Role of CD138 in Disease
CD138 has been shown to play a role in the development and progression of several types of cancer, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Binding of CD138 to CD154 signals the immune cell to activate inflammation. It may help to promote tumor growth and metastasis, and also helps tumors evade the immune system.
Therapeutic Potential of CD138
There are currently several ways to target CD138, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. These approaches are being investigated as potential ways to improve cancer treatment outcomes. CD138 is also expressed on platelets, which could make it a target for anti-platelet therapy. Blocking CD138 on platelets prevents blood clotting and improve outcomes for patients with cancer.
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CD147 is a protein that is found on the surface of cells. It is also known as Emmprin, which is short for epithelial membrane molecule with EGF-like and PDZ domains. CD147 acts as a receptor for certain viruses, which allows them to enter cells. CD147 is thought to play a role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by mediating cell-cell interactions.
CD147 Expression / Binding
CD147 is expressed on the cell surface of a wide range of vascular cells, including endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells. CD147 binds to various ligands, including thrombin, von Willebrand factor, and collagen.
Role of CD147 in Disease
Expression of CD147 is upregulated in diseases associated with abnormal angiogenesis, such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. CD147 has been shown to promote metastasis in cancer cells, and high expression of CD147 is associated with a more aggressive phenotype in many types of cancer. CD147 has also been shown to promote inflammation and apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively.
Therapeutic Potential of CD147
Monoclonal antibodies against CD147 are potential therapeutic agents for ovarian cancer. CD147 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of ovarian cancers and is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. CD147 knockdown induced apoptosis and inhibited cell migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells.
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CD152 is a transmembrane protein that is found on the surface of T cells. It is involved in the activation and function of T cells, and it helps to regulate the immune response. CD152 is also involved in the development of T cells, and it helps to guide the T cells to their correct destination.
CD152 Expression / Binding
CD152 is expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It is also found on B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells. CD152 binds to the ligand CD112 (Nectin-2), which is found on antigen-presenting cells, this interaction helps in T cell activation.
Role of CD152 in Disease
CD152 can help to suppress tumor growth and prevent the spread of cancer cells. CD152 has been shown to be important in the development of T cell-mediated immunity, and it may play a role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases.
Therapeutic Potential of CD152
CD152 (or, more specifically, its ligand CD80) has been investigated as a target for cancer immunotherapy. CD152-blocking monoclonal antibodies reduced tumor growth and prevented the spread of cancer cells, and increased the survival rate of mice with pancreatic cancer.
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CD154 is a cell surface protein that helps regulate how the body responds to infection and inflammation. CD154 also helps control the function of white blood cells, which are important for fighting infection. CD154 is involved in the activation of T-cells.
CD154 Expression / Binding
CD154 is expressed on the surface of immune cells. When CD154 binds to its receptor on a T-cell, it causes the T-cell to become activated and start fighting the infection. CD154 also binds to its receptor on mast cells, and causes the mast cells to release chemicals that cause allergy symptoms.
Role of CD154 in Disease
CD154 is implicated in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. CD154 has also been shown to play a role in some cancers, it may help tumors grow and spread. CD154 is also involved in the development of allergic reactions.
Therapeutic Potential of CD154
CD154 therapies being studied for their potential to treat other autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, CD154 therapies may also have a role in treating cancer. One study showed that anti-CD154 antibodies were able to kill ovarian cancer cells without harming healthy cells.
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CD208, also known as podoplanin, is a type I transmembrane protein that helps mediate cell adhesion and migration. CD208 interacts with mannose-terminated glycoproteins on pathogens, enabling immune cells to recognize and engulf foreign antigens. CD208 has also been shown to play a role in tumor metastasis.
CD208 Expression / Binding
CD208 is a receptor that is expressed on the surface of macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. CD208 binds to MHC class II molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, and is a receptor for both soluble and membrane-bound forms of MHC class II. This interaction is required for the internalization of MHC class II molecules from the cell surface during antigen presentation.
Role of CD208 in Disease
CD208 is implicated in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Studies have shown that CD208 expression is increased in many types of cancer, including ovarian, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. CD208 may help tumors evade the immune system, allowing them to grow and spread more easily.
Therapeutic Potential of CD208
CD208 has been identified as a putative target for cancer immunotherapy. CD208-targeted antibodies have shown the ability to induce tumor regression and improve survival in a variety of animal models.
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CD221 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD221 is thought to be involved in the regulation of immune responses, cell proliferation, and cell migration.
CD221 Expression / Binding
CD221 is predominantly expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. CD221 binds to a number of different ligands, including cytokines and chemokines.
Role of CD221 in Disease
CD221 has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of many types of cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and pancreatic cancer. CD221 may play a role in tumor growth and metastasis, and could be used as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD221
CD221 has been shown to be a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. In a study of mice with ovarian cancer, mice treated with an antibody targeting CD221 had a significant reduction in tumor size and a longer survival time. CD221 is upregulated in tumors that are resistant to chemotherapy. This suggests that CD221 could be used as a marker to identify patients who are likely to respond to chemotherapy.
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CD227, also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing-03 (Tim-03), is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD227 has been shown to play a role in the negative regulation of T cell proliferation and activation.
CD227 Expression / Binding
CD227 is expressed on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The V-type Ig domain of CD227 is responsible for binding to the receptor, while the mucin domain is responsible for mediating signal transduction.
Role of CD227 in Disease
CD227 has also been shown to be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In MS, CD227 is thought to play a role in the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In RA, CD227 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of joint inflammation.
Therapeutic Potential of CD227
CD227 has been used to treat cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and pancreatic cancer. CD227 has been shown to reduce the growth of tumors and increase survival rates in mice with cancer. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that CD227 can induce apoptosis in a wide range of tumor cells, including those that are resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiation treatments.
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CD257 is a cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD257 is involved in cell-cell interactions and signal transduction.
CD257 Expression / Binding
CD257 is found on the surface of T cells and natural killer cells. CD257 binds to the T cell receptor (TCR) and plays a role in T cell activation.
Role of CD257 in Disease
CD257 has been implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. CD257 may be a marker for disease activity or progression.
Therapeutic Potential of CD257
CD257 is a novel therapeutic molecule that can be used to treat cancer patients, as it helps to prevent the spread of cancer. Monoclonal antibody that targets the CD257 protein, has been shown to be effective in animal models of cancer, and is currently being tested in clinical trials.
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CD274 is a surface glycoprotein that is found on immune cells. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is also known as programmed death-ligand one (PD-L1). By inhibiting the activation of T-cells, CD274 prevents excessive inflammation and autoimmune reactions.
CD274 Expression / Binding
CD274 is expressed on activated dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. CD274 binds to PD-1 receptors on T cells, inhibiting their activation and proliferation.
Role of CD274 in Disease
CD274 is upregulated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infections. In cancer, CD274 expression is often associated with poor prognosis. Mutations in CD274 have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis.
Therapeutic Potential of CD274
Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD274 (PD-L1) have been shown to be effective in cancer, autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. Blocking the interaction between CD274 and PD-1 receptors has been shown to enhance T cell function and promote tumor regression in preclinical studies.
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CD279, also known as programmed death-ligand receptor (PD-1) or cluster of differentiation 279. It is involved in communication between cells and plays a role in regulating the immune system. Interaction between PD-1 and its ligands results in impaired activation of T cells and increased apoptosis.
CD279 Expression / Binding
CD279 is expressed on activated T cells. The two known ligands of CD279 are are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. These ligands bind to CD279 and modulate T-cell responses, including activation and proliferation. The binding of CD279 to its ligands also induces the expression of genes that promote tumor immunity.
Role of CD279 in Disease
CD279 has been shown to be upregulated in a variety of malignant tissues, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and ovarian carcinoma. Expression of PD-1 ligands on tumor cells may provide a mechanism for tumors to evade the immune system.
Therapeutic Potential of CD279
Inhibition of the interaction between CD279 and its ligands with monoclonal antibodies or small molecules are an effective strategy for restoring antitumor immunity. In the case of psoriasis, therapeutics blocking CD279 could be used to target the overactive immune cells and reduce inflammation, thereby providing symptomatic relief.
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CD326 is also known as the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR). CD326 receptor helps to regulate the activity of NK cells, which play an important role in fighting infection and cancer.
CD326 Expression / Binding
CD326 is a protein that is found on the surface of natural killer cells. CD326 binds to a protein called MHCI, this interaction activates NK cells and helps them to kill cancerous or infected cells.
Role of CD326 in Disease
CD326 has been shown to play a role in cancer development and progression. Studies have shown that CD326 is upregulated in many types of cancer, the increased expression of CD326 on tumor cells allows them to evade the immune system and escape detection.
Therapeutic Potential of CD326
Monoclonal antibodies against CD326 have been found to be effective in the treatment of several types of cancer, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. Targeting CD326 in cancer patients has been shown to improve prognosis and may also help to prevent the recurrence of cancer after treatment.
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