Hepatitis Antibodies, Proteins & ELISA Kits

Hepatitis Antibodies, Proteins and ELISA Kits

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis diseases are chronic, progressive conditions causing autoimmune-mediated inflammation and damage to the liver. Human hepatitis viruses are classified into five hepatotropic pathogens: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis diseases are considered significant threats to human health.

Hepatitis Overview

HAV spreads via fecal contamination of food or clothing. This route of transmission is termed the fecal-oral route. With HAV infection, recovery time lasts up to 6 weeks with no long-term damage to the liver. HBV spreads through sexual contact, contaminated syringes, and blood transfusion equipment. HBV is a leading cause of cirrhosis of the liver and/or liver cancer. However, there is an HBV vaccine available, offering protection against the disease. HCV is transmitted through blood to blood contact and is the most common type of hepatitis disease. Similarly to HBV, HCV can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. However, unlike the other types of hepatitis disease, HCV can be asymptomatic.

Similarly to HBV, HDV is transmitted via sexual contact or contaminated needles. Interestingly, one can only be infected with HDV if they have already had HBV. With HDV, there is a greater risk of liver failure and quick progression to cirrhosis. Subsequently, HDV has the highest mortality rate. Like with HAV, HEV is transmitted via the fecal oral route. Generally, patients with HEV have no symptoms or experience mild disease. However, people with weakened immune systems or pregnant women can experience chronic HEV, wherein fulminant liver failure or cirrhosis of the liver can occur.

Hepatitis Related Antibodies

SKU Type Product Name


Hepatitis B


Hepatitis B

Hepatitis Related Proteins

Hepatitis Related ELISA Kits






Hepatitis Related Biomarkers

The following candidate biomarkers are close to the supposed pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune hepatitis. They each possess various attributes supporting their role as surrogate markers of inflammatory activity. Thus, they can be actively monitored during treatment for hepatitis disease.

Programmed Death-1 (PD-1)

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint of the CD28 family that functions to provide inhibitory signals to T-cells. PD-1 is upregulated in chronic viral hepatitis which is associated with T-cell exhaustion and persistent viral infection.

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in the development of inflammatory diseases. A previous study investigated the effects of anti-mouse MIF antibody treatment in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice following an injection of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The results showed that MIF antibody treatment subsequently reduced liver injury and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. Thus, suggesting that MIF may act as a potential biomarker for HBV.


Macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation and liver fibrosis. Soluble (s)CD163 is a marker of activated macrophages. Previous studies have investigated the association between sCD163 and various parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in patients with hepatitis. In a particular study including patients with chronic HCV and HBV, it was found that sCD163 levels increased in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Thus, demonstrating macrophage activation. Increased levels of sCD163 are associated with the severity of disease and subsequently, predicts fibrosis.

B Cell-Activating Factor (BAFF)

B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays a vital role in the development, maturation and activation of B lymphocytes. Chronic HCV is characterized by several B cell disorders and is a primary cause of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). In a study investigating the role of BAFF in HCV, it was noted that serum levels of BAFF increased significantly in chronic HCV with MC, but not in chronic HBV. Thus, leading to the conclusion that there may be an association between BAFF and MC.

Immune Response

T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cell development is a significant branch point in the immune response. Thus, it is a key determinant of the human immune response to an infectious pathogen, leading to either protection of the host or dissemination of disease. Th1 cells produce IFN-γ and IL-2, while Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-Beta. IL-12 is a cytokine that is naturally produced by macrophages and induces the maturation of Th1 cells.

It is thought that IL-12 and IFN-Alpha may possess the ability to enhance the efficacy for treatment of chronic HBV. In addition, in most HCV patients, HCV-related cellular immune defects can be restored by IL-12. In HBV, TNF-Alpha, IL-1B, IFN-Beta, and IFN-Lambda play an important role in capsid stability and post-transcriptional targeting of RNAs.

The pathogenesis of chronic viral and non-viral infections in humans is thought to be impacted by an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells. This can be noted in diseases such as HIV, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and viral hepatitis.






Recombinant Antibodies

SKU Cytokine Product Name





Primary Antibodies

SKU Cytokine Product Name




Immunometabolism describes the role of cellular metabolism in meeting the energy demands of immune cells to counteract pathogens. The immunometabolism field presents novel opportunities to interfere with pathological conditions. Assay Genie provides Glycolysis, Glucose Uptake, and Fatty Acid Oxidation immunometabolism assay kits that would support hepatitis research in this field.

Through dysregulation of aerobic glycolysis and lipid metabolism, HBV induces hepatic injury in human hepatocytes. The cell surface expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) is downregulated by HCV core proteins. Thus, promoting hepatic gluconeogenesis through suppression of glucose uptake. In addition, IL-6 and TGF-Beta have been associated with a reduced glucose uptake and impairment of glucagon metabolism in HCV patients. There is proficient data connecting dysregulated lipid metabolism and cellular damage in HCV and HBV-infected liver disease. In addition, it has been shown that total fatty acids were increased in a HBV-replicating cell line (HepG2), therefore, providing a potential link to fatty liver diseases.

Animal Model ELISA Kits

The most commonly used experimental animal models of Hepatitis are non-human primate and mouse models. Non-human primate models have been implemented in research across all hepatitis virus types (A-E). The mouse model has been used to study hepatitis for types A-D. In addition, HAV has been studied using porcine and guinea pig models, while duck models have been used to investigate HBV. Assay Genie offers a wide range of animal model ELISA kits with the potential to support the advancing field of Hepatitis research.