SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kits

Assay Genie have developed a range of quantitative & qualitative immunoassays to help researchers in the fight against SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19. Using powerful serology assay technology scientists can now determine the existence of a previous infection. These assays can also be used to measure the effect of vaccination by detecting neutralizing antibodies. ELISA designed against viral proteins such as Spike S1, RBD and Nucleocapsid can detect the presence of the virus enabling scientists to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and ultimately contribute to drug discovery efforts. Finally, Assay Genie’s range of highly sensitive and quantitative singleplex and multiplex immunoassays measure Cytokine Storm.

COVID-19 Spike (S-Protein) Antigen ELISA Kits

Product Name Type Sensitivity Sample Type Antigen
COVID-19 Spike Protein Ultrasensitive ELISA Kit Quantitative 390fg/ml Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernatant, cell culture lysate and other biological fluids(throat swab, nose swab) Spike Protein
SARS-COV-2 Spike S1 Protein ELISA Kit Quantitative 32.22pg/ml Serum, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids Spike S1
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 RBD ELISA Kit Quantitative 0.09 ng/mL Serum, plasma and other biological fluids Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Spike Protein S1 (RBD) PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (SBRS1711) Quantitative 4.5 ng/ml Cell Culture Supernatants, Serum Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Spike Protein S2 PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (SBRS1712) Quantitative 2.7 ng/ml Cell Culture Supernatants, Serum Spike Protein S2

COVID-19 Nucleocapsid (N-Protein) Antigen ELISA Kits

Product Name Type Sensitivity Sample Type Antigen
SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein ELISA Kit Quantitative 0.12 ng/mL Serum, plasma and other biological fluids Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
COVID-19 Nucleoprotein ELISA Kit (UNFI0092) Quantitative 37.5pg/ml Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernatant, cell culture lysate and other biological fluids (throat swab, nose swab) Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
COVID-19 Nucleocapsid Protein PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (SBRS1710) Quantitative 0.07 ng/mL Serum, plasma, Cell Culture Supernatants, Nasopharyngeal swab Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)

Human COVID-19 Spike Protein Antibody Detection ELISA Kits

Product Name Type Sensitivity Sample Type Antigen
SARS-CoV-2 Human Spike Protein IgG ELISA Kit Quantitative 2.344ng/ml Serum, plasma and other biological fluids Spike Protein (S-Protein)
SARS-COV-2 Spike S1 Protein IgG Antibody ELISA Kit Semi-quantitative Antibody Titer N/A Serum, Plasma Spike S1
SARS-COV-2 Spike RBD Protein Antibody ELISA Kit Quantitative 163.1pg/ml Serum, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids Spike Protein S1 RBD
SARS-COV-2 Spike S1 Protein Antibody ELISA Kit Quantitative 182.1pg/ml Serum, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids Spike S1
SARS-COV-2 Spike RBD Protein IgG Antibody ELISA Kit Semi-quantitative Antibody Titer N/A Serum, Plasma Spike Protein S1 RBD
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein IgG ELISA Kit Qualitative N/A Serum, Plasma Spike Protein
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein IgM ELISA Kit Qualitative N/A Serum, Plasma Spike Protein

Human COVID-19 Nucleocapsid (N-Protein) Antibody Detection ELISA Kits

Product Name Type Sensitivity Sample Type Antigen
SARS-CoV-2 Human N-Protein IgG ELISA Kit Quantitative 2.344ng/ml Serum, plasma and other biological fluids Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
SARS-CoV-2 Human N-Protein IgM ELISA Kit Quantitative 0.469ng/ml Serum, plasma and other biological fluids Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein IgG ELISA Kit Qualitative N/A Serum, Plasma Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein IgM ELISA Kit Qualitative N/A Serum, Plasma Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)

Human COVID-19 Neutralizing Antibody Detection ELISA Kit

Product Name Type Sensitivity Sample Type
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody ELISA Kit Qualitative N/A Serum, Plasma

Human COVID-19 Antibody PharmaGenie ELISA Kits

Product Name Type Sample Type Antigen
COVID-19 Human IgA PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (N-Protein) Semi-quantitative Serum/Plasma Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
COVID-19 Human IgM PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (N-Protein) Semi-quantitative Serum/Plasma Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (N-Protein) Quantitative serum Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (N-Protein) Quantitative Dried Blood Nucleocapsid (N-Protein)
COVID-19 Human IgA PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (S1 RBD) Quantitative Serum Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgA PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (S1 RBD) Quantitative Dried Blood Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (S1 RBD) Quantitative Serum Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (S1 RBD) Quantitative Dried Blood Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgM PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (S1 RBD) Quantitative Serum Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgM PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (S1 RBD) Quantitative Dried Blood Spike Protein S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgA PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Quantitative Serum N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgA PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Quantitative Dried Blood N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgA PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Quantitative Plasma N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Semi-quantitative Serum N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Quantitative Dried Blood N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Semi-quantitative Plasma N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgG PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Semi-quantitative Saliva N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgM PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Quantitative Serum N-Protein & S1 RBD
COVID-19 Human IgM PharmaGenie ELISA Kit (NP/S1 RBD) Quantitative Dried Blood N-Protein & S1 RBD

Cytokine Storm ELISA Kits

Product Name Type Sample Type
TNF alpha ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
IL-1 beta ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
IL-8 ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
IL-6 ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
MCP-1/CCL2 ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
CD26/DPP4 ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
CD13 ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
CD66a ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids
Sialic Acid ELISA Kit Quantitative Serum, plasma and other biological fluids

SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kits

In-depth research is required to understand and uncover the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by COVID-19 infection and the immunological and cardiovascular pathways that likely contribute to disease severity. This research will contribute to the development of a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the development of therapeutics and anti-virals to prevent and/or repress SARS-CoV-2 infection. To support COVID-19 research we have developed some key biological research tools including Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) products.

ELISA is a widely-used antibody based technique to measure antibodies or antigens in biological samples. COVID-19 ELISA assay kits are useful immunological research tools. If a patient has been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the presence of viral antigens can be sampled and detected using ELISA.

In an ELISA, antibodies specific to the viral antigens are coated on the ELISA plate wells, followed by the addition of a sample. If the sample is positive for viral antigens, they will bind to the specific antibodies. Detection of viral antigen occurs following the addition of a detection antibody which is conjugated to enzyme. Antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 that can be used in an ELISA detection kit include the spike antibody, envelope antibody, membrane antibody, nucleocapsid antibody and the elevated presence of IgG and IgM antibody.

ELISA kits can be used can identify whether or not a person has been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and if immunity against the infection has been developed. Successful and rapid COVID-19 detection is extremely critical. ELISA Genie SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits are beneficial to detect antibodies produced by the immune response against SARS-COV-2 in human serum/plasma.

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid, Spike Protein and IgG & IgM

IgG and IgM responses in COVID-19

There are several immune responses that occur following COVID-19 exposure. The two main types of antibodies produced against surface proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are IgG and IgM. Early studies on seroconversion suggest the production of these antibodies in COVID-19 patients typically occurs between 7 and 11 days after exposure, with IgM antibodies appearing first, followed by IgG antibodies. IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and is maintained in the body after initial exposure for long term response. IgM is the first immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and is primarily detected during the early onset of disease.

ELISA Genie COVID-19 ELISA kits are useful tools for the qualitative detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 virus in human serum to aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and its Receptor Binding Domain (RBD)

For patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, B cell responses are activated firstly against the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2. A few days after symptoms present, antibody responses against the spike protein of the virus present themselves.

The spike protein is a heavily-glycosylated, cell-surface protein which mediates viral entry into host cells. Spike protein is necessary for attachment to susceptible cells. The spike protein is composed of both an S1 domain and S2 domain. S1 contains a receptor-binding domain. Here, the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein mediates an interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Neutralising antibody responses, mainly to the Spike protein, begin to develop by week 2 of infection onset and most patients develop neutralising antibodies by week 3.

Controlling the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 partially depends upon early diagnosis and confirmation of the disease by laboratory tests. Due to the role that spike protein plays in inducing neutralization antibodies in the host, the quantitative detection of of Spike protein concentrations in patient samples is a beneficial tool. ELISA Genie COVID-19 ELISA kits can be used for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen.

The RBD of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has shown promise as an antigen for specific antibody detection. This is due to the RBD of the spike protein being poorly conserved between other pathogenic human coronaviruses. ELISA Genie Spike RBD protein kits are a beneficial tool for detecting Covid-19-specific antibodies in biological samples.

SARS-CoV-2 and Cytokine Release Syndrome

Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19

A Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), also called a cytokine storm, is a systemic inflammatory response characterised by a large and dysregulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Under homeostatic conditions, t-cells & cytokines help to coordinate the immune system’s defense against pathogens. However, large quantities of cytokines can spur the recruitment of mass amounts of immune cells, causing widespread inflammation along with a decrease in the functionality of local organs affected.

Cytokine storm is thought to be associated with disease severity in COVID-19. At present, multiple therapeutics target the pathways which are affected by the pro-inflammatory cytokines of CRS. Blocking IL-6 in particular is an attractive treatment option which has received considerable pharmaceutical and media investment. CRS most commonly begins with a fever and flu-like symptoms, but can quickly worsen. Patients who develop the syndrome generally recover within two weeks; most do not suffer repercussions or long-term effects after CRS has been treated.

Cytokine Release Syndrome Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of CRS is still not entirely understood. However, certain key mediators of cytokine release syndrome have been identified. Chief among these is interleukin 6 (IL-6), an activator of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway which can bind to two forms of its receptor (soluble and transmembrane).

IL-6, along with IL-10 and IFNγ are the cytokines most consistently implicated in CRS. These three cytokines are usually elevated in the serum of patients with cytokine storm. TNF, IL-1, IL-8 and MCP-1 are more prominent early in CRS onset, with IL-6 produced later in the progression of the syndrome in higher quantities. IL-6 production is increased by TNF and IL-1, thus linking the signal of early-response cytokines to late onset profiles.

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